Skip to main content

Table 4 Clinical characteristics according to dichotomized inflammatory scores

From: Inflammatory cytokine and chemokine profiles are associated with patient outcome and the hyperadrenergic state following acute brain injury

Characteristics Inflammation—low (IS < 15, n = 33) Inflammation—high (IS ≥ 15, n = 43) P value
Catecholamine levelsa (pmol/L)    
 Epi 1131.5 (656.0–1901.9) 1655.0 (733.2–4307.4) 0.110
 NE 6064.3 (3081.0–18373.4) 12,110.0* (7653.1–37,939.8) 0.013
Injury severity    
 GCS 7.0 (4.0–9.0) 3.0* (3.0–7.0) 0.002
 AIS head 4.0 (3.0–5.0) 5.0* (4.0–5.0) 0.006
 ISS 20.5 (16.5–29.5) 29.5* (20.0–35.0) 0.014
Outcome (n)    
 Sepsis/infection 13 9 0.079
 Unfavorable 6-month GOSE 14 33* 0.002
 Overall mortality 4 16* 0.014
 Neurologic death 2 13* 0.009
  1. Values described as the median and interquartile range unless otherwise stated. IS variables consist of peak differences between unfavorable and favorable outcome over 24 h in IL-1β (6 h), IL-10 (6 h), TNF-α (6 h), IL-8 (6 h), MCP-1 (admission), and MDC (12 h)
  2. Abbreviations: IS inflammation score, Epi epinephrine, NE norepinephrine, GCS Glasgow coma scale, AIS abbreviated injury scale, ISS injury severity score, GOSE extended Glasgow outcome scale
  3. *p < 0.05 vs. low inflammatory score by Mann-Whitney U or chi-square, where appropriate
  4. aAverage catecholamine concentrations over 24 h