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Fig. 4 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 4

From: Hyperammonemia induces glial activation, neuroinflammation and alters neurotransmitter receptors in hippocampus, impairing spatial learning: reversal by sulforaphane

Fig. 4

Hyperammonemia increases pro-inflammatory M1 markers IL-1β and IL-6 in the hippocampus. Sulforaphane reduces M1 markers and increases M2 markers Arginase 1 and Ym-1. The hippocampal content of IL-6 (a), IL-1β (b), IL-10 (c), Arginase 1 (d), and Ym-1 (e) was analyzed by Western blot in control (C) and hyperammonemic (HA) rats treated with vehicle (V) or sulforaphane (SFN). Representative images are shown. Values are the mean ± SEM of 8–12 rats per group. Values significantly different from control rats are indicated by asterisks. Values significantly different from hyperammonemic rats are indicated by a. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, a p < 0.05, aa p < 0.01

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