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Fig. 5 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 5

From: Hyperammonemia induces glial activation, neuroinflammation and alters neurotransmitter receptors in hippocampus, impairing spatial learning: reversal by sulforaphane

Fig. 5

The membrane expression of the alpha-1 (a) and alpha-5 (b) subunits of GABAA receptor, GluR1 (e) and GluR2 (f) subunits of AMPA receptors, and NR1 (c) and NR2A (d) subunits of NMDA receptors is altered in the hippocampus of hyperammonemic rats and is normalized by treatment with sulforaphane. Membrane expression of each subunit in the hippocampus was analyzed using the BS3 cross-linker procedure as described in the Methods section. Samples incubated in the absence or presence of BS3 were subjected to Western blotting using antibodies for each of the subunits. Representative images are shown. Samples in the absence of BS3 represent the total amount of each protein. Samples in the presence of BS3 represent the non-membrane fraction. The intensities of the bands were quantified, and membrane expression was calculated as the difference of intensity between samples without and with BS3. Values are expressed as percentage of control rats and are the mean ± standard errors of 8–12 rats per group. Values significantly different from control rats are indicated by asterisks and from hyperammonemic rats by a. *p < 0.05,**p < 0.01, a p < 0.05, aaa p < 0.001

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