Skip to main content
Fig. 5 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 5

From: Procyanidins alleviates morphine tolerance by inhibiting activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in microglia

Fig. 5

Procyanidins suppressed morphine tolerance by inhibiting p38 MAPK/NF-κB and ROS signaling in microglia. Before the treatment of morphine (200 μM), BV-2 cells were pre-treated with different doses of procyanidins. Then we handle and analyze BV-2 cells after morphine exposure. a Procyanidins inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK after morphine treatment for 2 h in a dose-dependent manner. Representative western blot bands and a data summary (n = 4) for p-p38 and p38 are shown. b MTT experiments showed that different doses of procyanidins did not affect cell proliferation. c Procyanidins (100 μM) inhibited the NF-κB translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus after morphine exposure for 4 h in BV-2 cells. d The level of ROS was assessed by calculating the ratio of MitoSOX staining positive cells to 10,000 cells through flow cytometry. Procyanidins (100 μM) inhibited the release of mitochondrial ROS after morphine treatment for 12 h in BV-2 cells. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 vs. baseline; # p < 0.05, ## p < 0.01, ### p < 0.001 vs. morphine-treated group. Scale bar 20 μm

Back to article page