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Table 1 Anti-inflammatory effect of DHA or derivatives on glial cells

From: Role of docosahexaenoic acid in the modulation of glial cells in Alzheimer’s disease

DHA or derivative Cell type Effect Model Reference
DHA Astrocytes −TNF-α and IL-6 In vitro primary cell culture from rat brain [8386]
+Antioxidant enzymes
−Calcium dyshomeostasis
+Glutamate uptake
−ERK
−MAPK
RvD1 Astrocytes −TNF-α and ERK In vivo and in vitro primary cell culture from rat and human cell line [89]
DHA Glia −TNF-α In vitro primary cell culture from rat brain [79]
−IL-1β
−IL-6
−MCP-1 and CCR2
DHA Microglia +Phagocytic activity In vitro primary cell culture from rat and mice brain and cell lines [6771, 77]
−p38 MAPK
−TNF-α
−IL-1β
−IL-6
CCL2, CCL3, and CXCL10
−NO
+Glutathione
−NOS
−COX2
−TLR4 and CD14
−NFκB
DiHDoHE Microglia −Ameboid morphology Choroidal neovascularization in rats [88]
DHA Macrophages/Microglia −Infiltration Neurologic pain in rats [66, 79]
−CD45high/CD11bhigh
−Pro-inflammatory cytokines Cerebral ischemia in rats
+Anti-oxidative pathway
DHA Müller glia −Ameboid morphology Retina of CLN6NCLF mice [75]
  1. + increase or activation, decrease or inhibition, CCL2 C-C motif ligand 2, CCL3 C-C motif ligand 3, CCR2 CCL2 receptor, CD14 receptor cluster of differentiation 14, COX2 cyclooxygenase 2, DHA docosahexaenoic acid, DiHDoHE 10S,17S-dihydroxy-docosa-4Z,7Z,11E,13Z,15E,19Z-hexaenoic acid, ERK extracellular-regulated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, IL-1β interleukin 1β, IL-6 interleukin 6, MCP-1 monocyte chemotactic protein-1, NF-κB nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, NO nitric oxide, p38 MAPK p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, RvD1 resolvin D1, TLR4 toll-like receptor type 4, TNF-α tumor necrosis factor-α, CD45 high /CD11b high activated macrophage/microglia [79], CD45 protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type C, CD11b integrin subunit alpha M (ITGAM), CLN6 NCLF mouse a mouse with natural occurring neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLF) and alterations in the ceroid-lipofuscinosis, neuronal 6 (CLN6) gene