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Fig. 5 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 5

From: Systemic pro-inflammatory response facilitates the development of cerebral edema during short hypoxia

Fig. 5

CRH stimulates microglia and triggers an immune-inflammatory response. a, b Increase in TNF-α and IL-6 release in cultured primary cortical microglia induced by CRH or LPS or CRH+LPS challenge for 24 h. **P < 0.01, compared with control, # P < 0.05; ## P < 0.01, LPS + CRH vs LPS. c Increase in NO production in cultured primary cortical microglia challenged by CRH, LPS or CRH+LPS. **P < 0.01, compared with control; &P < 0.01, compared between LPS + CRH and LPS; @@ P < 0.01 compared between CRH + LPS and CRH + LPS + CP154,526; ### P < 0.01, compared between CRH and CRH + CP154,526. CRH stimulated increased NO production, was blocked by PKA inhibitor (inset). ***P < 0.001 compared with control, +++ P < 0.001 compared between CRH and CRH + PKA inhibitor. All the data are presented as mean ± SD. d Hypoxia and LPS increased IL-6 protein levels in brain cortex. Increased IL-6 protein in rat brain cortex following either hypoxia or LPS (8 h) was blocked by CRHR1 antagonist, n = 6, **P < 0.01 compared with control, ++ P < 0.01 compared between hypoxia and hypoxia + CP154,526, ## P < 0.01 compared between LPS and LPS + CP154,526, the data are presented as mean ± SD. e Hypoxia stimulated expression of mRNAs of CRH, TNF-α, and IL-6 in brain cortex (n = 6) **P < 0.01, compared with control, the data are presented as mean ± SD. f Hypoxia-increased CRH release in circulation **P < 0.01, compared with control; ++ P < 0.01, compared between hypoxia 2 and 8 h, the data are presented mean ± SD

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