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Fig. 5 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 5

From: Neuroinflammation increases GABAergic tone and impairs cognitive and motor function in hyperammonemia by increasing GAT-3 membrane expression. Reversal by sulforaphane by promoting M2 polarization of microglia

Fig. 5

Hyperammonemia increases markers of M1 (pro-inflammatory) form of microglia and treatment with sulforaphane increases markers of M2 (anti-inflammatory) form of microglia in hyperammonemic rats. Cerebellar homogenates from control (C) and hyperammonemic (HA) rats treated with vehicle (V) or sulforaphane (SFN) were subjected to electrophoresis and Western blot using antibodies against a Iba1, marker of microglial activation; b the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1b, marker of M1 microglia; and against the markers of M2 microglia IL-10 (c), IL-4 (d), YM-1 (e), and Arginase 1 (f). Representative images of the blots are shown for each protein. Values are the mean ± SEM of six to nine rats per group. Values significantly different from control rats are indicated by asterisks. Values significantly different from hyperammonemic rats are indicated by “a”. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; “ap < 0.05; “aap < 0.01

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