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Fig. 6 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 6

From: Neuroinflammation increases GABAergic tone and impairs cognitive and motor function in hyperammonemia by increasing GAT-3 membrane expression. Reversal by sulforaphane by promoting M2 polarization of microglia

Fig. 6

Hyperammonemia induces and treatment with sulforaphane reduces activation of astrocytes, which express IL-1b and GAT-3. Immunohistochemistry was performed as indicated in methods with DAB staining using antibodies against GFAP (ad), IL-1b (eh), or GAT-3 (il). Hyperammonemic rats show an altered morphology of astrocytes stained with GFAP (indicated by arrows), indicating activation (c). Treatment with SFN reduces astrocyte activation and normalizes the morphology (d). Activated astrocytes in hyperammonemic rats show increased labeling of IL-1b (g) and GAT-3 (k), which are normalized by treatment with SFN (h, l). mp Double immunofluorescence staining of GFAP (red) and Iba-1 (green). Nuclei are stained with DAPI (blue). In the merged image, no co-localization of GFAP and Iba-1 is observed

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