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Fig. 6 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 6

From: Dimethyl fumarate attenuates experimental autoimmune neuritis through the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2/hemoxygenase-1 pathway by altering the balance of M1/M2 macrophages

Fig. 6

DMF ameliorates lymphocyte proliferative responses and alters cytokine profiles. Splenic mononuclear cells (MNCs) from each group (n = 6) were harvested on day 16 post-immunization. a MNCs proliferation following DMF treatment. After culturing MNCs for 72 h in the presence of P0 peptide 180-199 (10 μg/ml), MNC proliferation was analyzed by MTS assay. When compared to the CMC group, a significant reduction in proliferation was observed in DMF-preventative and DMF-therapeutic groups. b Cytokine profiles of the supernatants of spleen MNCs cultured with P0 peptide 180-199 (10 μg/ml) for 72 h, as measured by ELISA. The levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ decreased greatly, but the level of IL-4 increased compared to the CMC group. A trend in increasing IL-10 levels and decreasing IL-1α levels was evident but not statistically significant. ch IL-6, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-17 mRNA expression levels in the splenocytes of EAN rats, as measured by RT-PCR. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17 decreased in DMF-treated groups, while the level of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 increased significantly. Each experiment was performed in triplicate for each group. Comparisons between the CMC group and DMF-treated groups were performed using Mann–Whitney U tests. Data shown are means ± SEM (*p < 0.05 for comparison between CMC and DMF-treated groups, n = 4). The experiment was repeated 3 times with similar results

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