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Table 1 Overview of demographic and clinical data as well as inter-group comparisons for the cohorts IPD, PDLRRK2 and CON stratified by gender

From: Inflammatory profile in LRRK2-associated prodromal and clinical PD

  Female N = 211 Male N = 208 Female Male
  IPD N = 49 PDLRRK2 N = 73 CON N = 89 IPD N = 95 PDLRRK2 N = 69 CON N = 44 p value IPD PDLRRK2 CON p value Post hoc IPD CON p value Post hoc PDLRRK2 CON p value Post hoc IPD PDLRRK2 p value IPD PDLRRK2 CON p value Post hoc IPD CON p value Post hoc PDLRRK2 CON p value Post hoc IPD PDLRRK2
Age Years 68 46–83 67 35–89 57 18–83 69 46–80 65 36–88 58 28–83 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.999 0.001 0.001 0.012 0.204
Age at onset Years 60 39–77 59 29–76   61 39–75 54 23–82      0.280     0.001
Disease duration Years 7 1–20 10 1–25   7 1–21 11 1–34      0.003     0.001
UPDRS-III 26 6–64 18 2–82 0 0–9 28 9–61 19 1–70 0 0–8 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.379 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001
HY 2 1–4 2 1–5   2 1–4 2 1–5      0.544     0.889
MoCA 27 11–30 25 6–30 27 17–30 27 13–30 24 5–30 27 17–30 0.001 0.999 0.001 0.014 0.001 0.999 0.002 0.001
RBD Questionnaire 3 0–11 3 0–11 1 0–13 4 0–13 3 0–12 1 0–11 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.941 0.001 0.001 0.017 0.009
ESS 9 1–18 6 0–24 6 0–15 10 0–23 8 0–24 6 0–14 0.002 0.002 0.999 0.024 0.001 0.001 0.246 0.057
SCOPA-AUT 15 2–36 15 0–45 7 0–41 13 0–40 12 0–51 6 0–30 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.999 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.999
Regular anti-inflammatory medication (% of individuals) 12.2 10.3 1.2 10.5 3.1 0.0 0.022 0.010 0.023 0.772 0.032 0.033 0.522 0.125
  1. Data are presented as median with range. p values reflect results from Kruskal-Wallis test and, in case of significant differences between the three cohorts, pair-wise post hoc Dunn Test including correction for multiple comparisons. Statistical analysis for the intake of anti-inflammatory medication was done using chi-square test
  2. IPD patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease, PD LRRK2 patients with Parkinson’s disease carrying a LRRK2 mutation, NMC LRRK2 non-manifesting LRRK2 mutation carriers, CON healthy control individuals, ESS Epworth Sleepiness Scale, HY Hoehn and Yahr Scale, LEDD levodopa-equivalent daily dosage, MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment, RBD REM sleep behavior disorder, UPDRS-III Unified Parkinson’s disease Rating Scale