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Table 2 Overview of levels of inflammatory-related and neurotrophic markers as well as inter-group comparisons for the cohorts IPD, PDLRRK2, and CON stratified by gender

From: Inflammatory profile in LRRK2-associated prodromal and clinical PD

  Female N = 211 Male N = 208 Female Male
Serum marker IPD N = 49 PDLRRK2 N = 73 CON N = 89 IPD N = 95 PDLRRK2 N = 69 CON N = 44 p value IPD PDLRRK2 CON p value Post hoc IPD CON p value Post hoc PDLRRK2 CON p value Post hoc IPD PDLRRK2 p value IPD PDLRRK2 CON p value Post hoc IPD CON p value Post hoc PDLRRK2 CON p value Post hoc IPD PDLRRK2
Alpha fetoprotein ng/ml 0.97 0.09–6.20 0.81 0.12–4.07 0.76 0.07–6.94 1.17 0.14–7.17 0.93 0.12–14.10 0.95 0.33–3.52 0.004 0.008 0.017 0.014 0.034 0.070 0.849 0.032
BDNF (Brain-derived neurotrophic factor) ng/ml 27.40 15.50–40.60 18.90 3.85–55.40 19.70 2.92–41.70 25.50 10.60–56.30 15.60 1.52–37.20 17.05 2.88–45.10 <0.001 <0.001 0.053 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.311 <0.001
ENA-78 (Epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78) ng/ml 2.08 0.82–6.15 1.91 0.56–8.36 2.03 0.48–7.70 1.62 0.48–4.61 1.43 0.36–5.08 1.54 0.19–4.77 0.403 0.710 0.499 0.307 0.465 0.439 0.016 0.766
FABP (Fatty-acid-binding protein) ng/ml 4.97 2.24–81.10 3.71 0.40–26.70 2.87 0.97–12.00 5.91 1.45–22.20 4.44 1.37–18.90 4.04 1.44–11.50 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.006 0.002
GH (Growth hormone) ng/ml 1.39 0.11–14.40 2.47 0.08–26.50 1.61 0.11–29.60 0.79 0.04–14.90 0.87 0.08–30.80 0.36 0.07–24.50 0.145 0.326 0.415 0.117 0.004 0.083 0.005 0.030
ICAM-1 (Intercellular adhesion molecule 1) ng/ml 152.62 65.70–224.00 161.00 73.50–262.00 160.00 80.00–288.00 149.00 71.60–273.00 150.00 51.60–246.00 150.50 83.40–232.00 0.340 0.544 0.722 0.018 0.251 0.183 0.529 0.267
IL-1-beta pg/ml 2.18 1.02–4.97 1.83 0.29–4.53 1.84 0.56–4.10 2.57 1.11–17.10 2.38 0.71–5.22 2.17 1.02–3.30 0.052 0.018 0.726 0.239 0.012 0.019 0.179 0.033
IL-4 pg/ml 16.80 8.20–33.20 15.10 5.57–27.00 15.10 6.73–31.50 15.90 5.16–41.20 13.20 4.43–27.10 13.10 5.02–27.00 0.097 0.409 0.083 0.095 0.024 0.070 0.671 0.030
IL-6 pg/ml 4.36 1.67–20.30 4.26 1.27–16.30 3.65 1.27–99.10 5.29 1.67–13.90 5.63 2.00–13.70 4.71 2.17–9.57 0.008 0.017 0.053 0.020 0.033 0.346 0.002 0.254
IL-8 pg/ml 9.72 2.85–38.10 12.90 3.17–60.70 11.60 3.60–60.30 10.70 2.94–771.00 12.30 2.93–209.00 10.75 2.65–77.50 0.052 0.025 0.242 0.232 0.332 0.428 0.145 0.054
IL-10 pg/ml 4.68 1.72–36.10 3.72 1.78–19.20 3.26 1.78–21.80 5.09 2.55–36.90 3.29 1.78–13.80 3.26 1.78–7.59 0.001 <0.001 0.392 0.032 <0.001 <0.001 0.488 <0.001
IL-12-p40 ng/ml 0.29 0.12–0.71 0.21 0.10–0.49 0.24 0.07–0.69 0.25 0.07–0.88 0.22 0.07–0.62 0.16 0.07–0.36 0.007 0.004 0.228 0.016 <0.001 <0.001 0.015 0.059
IL-16 pg/ml 532.00 152.00–1000.00 543.00 237.00–1080.00 551.00 239.00–1370.00 522.00 224.00–1580.00 497.00 232.00–1310.00 520.00 268.00–760.00 0.537 0.265 0.535 0.663 0.611 0.851 0.603 0.403
IL-18 pg/ml 282.00 147.00–546.00 272.00 101.00–752.00 282.00 140.00–3360.00 304.00 137.00–925.00 312.00 133.00–771.00 306.00 141.00–681.00 0.521 0.390 0.725 0.362 0.094 0.812 0.040 0.020
Leptin ng/ml 17.50 4.83–56.20 17.80 0.66–113.00 15.70 2.10–123.00 6.59 0.69–46.00 6.74 0.63–32.40 7.06 1.14–32.50 0.934 0.460 0.624 0.951 0.534 0.781 0.162 0.631
MCP-1 (Monocyte chemotactic protein 1) pg/ml 396.00 177.00–941.00 366.00 152.00–1190.00 342.00 113.00–844.00 448.00 21.90–872.00 333.00 99.90–802.00 323.50 120.00–916.00 0.511 0.268 0.922 0.136 0.066 0.006 0.389 0.115
MDC (Macrophage-derived chemokine) pg/ml 425.00 292.00–676.00 516.00 125.00–964.00 474.00 93.80–1800.00 401.00 171.00–838.00 407.00 146.00–3860.00 483.00 188.00–950.00 0.113 0.289 0.286 0.014 0.014 0.017 0.381 0.036
MIP-1-beta (Macrophage inflammatory protein-1-beta) pg/ml 251.00 70.50–1160.00 217.00 18.40–588.00 215.00 62.20–955.00 237.00 29.70–737.00 207.00 75.90–1530.00 208.00 69.40–2520.00 0.034 0.011 0.097 0.264 0.762 0.536 0.491 0.189
MMP-3 (Matrix-metallo-proteinase-3) ng/ml 14.80 4.42–37.10 13.50 6.31–120.00 12.30 6.08–92.90 23.00 7.28–59.90 24.00 8.01–48.40 23.55 9.61–53.80 0.013 0.052 0.029 0.057 0.594 0.891 0.703 0.283
MMP-9 (Matrix-metallo-proteinase-9) ng/ml 16.80 6.80–28.00 20.90 9.28–46.20 19.60 12.60–61.60 21.20 12.10–42.30 27.00 15.60–121.00 25.40 16.10–37.80 <0.000 <0.001 0.100 <0.001 <0.001 0.222 0.058 <0.001
SCF (Stem cell factor) pg/ml 319.00 169.00–535.00 269.00 78.30–635.00 277.00 117.00–614.00 293.00 154.00–514.00 251.00 81.90–587.00 279.00 127.00–494.00 <0.001 <0.001 0.016 0.009 0.001 0.004 0.344 <0.001
TF (Tissue factor) ng/ml 0.28 0.08–0.72 0.25 0.12–0.67 0.24 0.07–0.53 0.43 0.08–23.80 0.32 0.13–0.74 0.30 0.15–0.43 0.064 0.231 0.002 0.833 0.011 0.057 0.187 0.102
TNF-alpha (Tumor necrosis factor alpha) pg/ml 58.70 11.70–110.00 60.00 21.20–129.00 60.00 27.60–110.00 76.50 39.20–187.00 73.30 30.30–143.00 69.30 49.80–105.00 0.666 0.294 0.925 0.427 0.200 0.299 0.161 0.296
TPO (Thrombopoietin) pg/ml 2.67 1.75–3.55 2.07 0.19–3.76 2.37 0.56–4.48 2.54 1.62–3.68 1.98 0.31–4.08 2.25 0.59–3.64 <0.001 0.002 0.042 0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.069 <0.001
  1. Data are presented as median with range. p values reflect results from inter-group comparisons between IPD, PDLRRK2, and CON using multivariate variance analysis including age, regular intake of anti-inflammatory medication, and study site as co-variates. Correction for multiple testing for the number of groups that have been compared (n = 3 for IPD, PDLRRK2, CON = p < 0.016) was done according to Bonferroni and statistical significance was defined as p < 0.016. In case of significant differences between the three cohorts, we calculated pair-wise post hoc comparison including age, regular intake of anti-inflammatory medication, and study site as co-variates; and in the case of comparison between IPD and PDLRRK2, also disease duration was introduced as co-variate
  2. IPD patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease, PD LRRK2 patients with Parkinson’s disease carrying a LRRK2 mutation, CON healthy control individuals