Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Overview of levels of inflammatory-related and neurotrophic markers as well as inter-group comparisons for the cohorts IPD, PDLRRK2, and CON stratified by gender

From: Inflammatory profile in LRRK2-associated prodromal and clinical PD

  Female
N = 211
Male
N = 208
Female Male
Serum marker IPD
N = 49
PDLRRK2
N = 73
CON
N = 89
IPD
N = 95
PDLRRK2
N = 69
CON
N = 44
p value
IPD
PDLRRK2
CON
p value
Post hoc
IPD
CON
p value
Post hoc
PDLRRK2
CON
p value
Post hoc
IPD
PDLRRK2
p value
IPD
PDLRRK2
CON
p value
Post hoc
IPD
CON
p value
Post hoc
PDLRRK2
CON
p value
Post hoc
IPD
PDLRRK2
Alpha fetoprotein
ng/ml
0.97
0.09–6.20
0.81
0.12–4.07
0.76
0.07–6.94
1.17
0.14–7.17
0.93
0.12–14.10
0.95
0.33–3.52
0.004 0.008 0.017 0.014 0.034 0.070 0.849 0.032
BDNF
(Brain-derived neurotrophic factor)
ng/ml
27.40
15.50–40.60
18.90
3.85–55.40
19.70
2.92–41.70
25.50
10.60–56.30
15.60
1.52–37.20
17.05
2.88–45.10
<0.001 <0.001 0.053 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.311 <0.001
ENA-78
(Epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78)
ng/ml
2.08
0.82–6.15
1.91
0.56–8.36
2.03
0.48–7.70
1.62
0.48–4.61
1.43
0.36–5.08
1.54
0.19–4.77
0.403 0.710 0.499 0.307 0.465 0.439 0.016 0.766
FABP
(Fatty-acid-binding protein)
ng/ml
4.97
2.24–81.10
3.71
0.40–26.70
2.87
0.97–12.00
5.91
1.45–22.20
4.44
1.37–18.90
4.04
1.44–11.50
<0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.006 0.002
GH
(Growth hormone)
ng/ml
1.39
0.11–14.40
2.47
0.08–26.50
1.61
0.11–29.60
0.79
0.04–14.90
0.87
0.08–30.80
0.36
0.07–24.50
0.145 0.326 0.415 0.117 0.004 0.083 0.005 0.030
ICAM-1
(Intercellular adhesion molecule 1)
ng/ml
152.62
65.70–224.00
161.00
73.50–262.00
160.00
80.00–288.00
149.00
71.60–273.00
150.00
51.60–246.00
150.50
83.40–232.00
0.340 0.544 0.722 0.018 0.251 0.183 0.529 0.267
IL-1-beta
pg/ml
2.18
1.02–4.97
1.83
0.29–4.53
1.84
0.56–4.10
2.57
1.11–17.10
2.38
0.71–5.22
2.17
1.02–3.30
0.052 0.018 0.726 0.239 0.012 0.019 0.179 0.033
IL-4
pg/ml
16.80
8.20–33.20
15.10
5.57–27.00
15.10
6.73–31.50
15.90
5.16–41.20
13.20
4.43–27.10
13.10
5.02–27.00
0.097 0.409 0.083 0.095 0.024 0.070 0.671 0.030
IL-6
pg/ml
4.36
1.67–20.30
4.26
1.27–16.30
3.65
1.27–99.10
5.29
1.67–13.90
5.63
2.00–13.70
4.71
2.17–9.57
0.008 0.017 0.053 0.020 0.033 0.346 0.002 0.254
IL-8
pg/ml
9.72
2.85–38.10
12.90
3.17–60.70
11.60
3.60–60.30
10.70
2.94–771.00
12.30
2.93–209.00
10.75
2.65–77.50
0.052 0.025 0.242 0.232 0.332 0.428 0.145 0.054
IL-10
pg/ml
4.68
1.72–36.10
3.72
1.78–19.20
3.26
1.78–21.80
5.09
2.55–36.90
3.29
1.78–13.80
3.26
1.78–7.59
0.001 <0.001 0.392 0.032 <0.001 <0.001 0.488 <0.001
IL-12-p40
ng/ml
0.29
0.12–0.71
0.21
0.10–0.49
0.24
0.07–0.69
0.25
0.07–0.88
0.22
0.07–0.62
0.16
0.07–0.36
0.007 0.004 0.228 0.016 <0.001 <0.001 0.015 0.059
IL-16
pg/ml
532.00
152.00–1000.00
543.00
237.00–1080.00
551.00
239.00–1370.00
522.00
224.00–1580.00
497.00
232.00–1310.00
520.00
268.00–760.00
0.537 0.265 0.535 0.663 0.611 0.851 0.603 0.403
IL-18
pg/ml
282.00
147.00–546.00
272.00
101.00–752.00
282.00
140.00–3360.00
304.00
137.00–925.00
312.00
133.00–771.00
306.00
141.00–681.00
0.521 0.390 0.725 0.362 0.094 0.812 0.040 0.020
Leptin
ng/ml
17.50
4.83–56.20
17.80
0.66–113.00
15.70
2.10–123.00
6.59
0.69–46.00
6.74
0.63–32.40
7.06
1.14–32.50
0.934 0.460 0.624 0.951 0.534 0.781 0.162 0.631
MCP-1
(Monocyte chemotactic protein 1)
pg/ml
396.00
177.00–941.00
366.00
152.00–1190.00
342.00
113.00–844.00
448.00
21.90–872.00
333.00
99.90–802.00
323.50
120.00–916.00
0.511 0.268 0.922 0.136 0.066 0.006 0.389 0.115
MDC
(Macrophage-derived chemokine)
pg/ml
425.00
292.00–676.00
516.00
125.00–964.00
474.00
93.80–1800.00
401.00
171.00–838.00
407.00
146.00–3860.00
483.00
188.00–950.00
0.113 0.289 0.286 0.014 0.014 0.017 0.381 0.036
MIP-1-beta
(Macrophage inflammatory protein-1-beta)
pg/ml
251.00
70.50–1160.00
217.00
18.40–588.00
215.00
62.20–955.00
237.00
29.70–737.00
207.00
75.90–1530.00
208.00
69.40–2520.00
0.034 0.011 0.097 0.264 0.762 0.536 0.491 0.189
MMP-3
(Matrix-metallo-proteinase-3)
ng/ml
14.80
4.42–37.10
13.50
6.31–120.00
12.30
6.08–92.90
23.00
7.28–59.90
24.00
8.01–48.40
23.55
9.61–53.80
0.013 0.052 0.029 0.057 0.594 0.891 0.703 0.283
MMP-9
(Matrix-metallo-proteinase-9)
ng/ml
16.80
6.80–28.00
20.90
9.28–46.20
19.60
12.60–61.60
21.20
12.10–42.30
27.00
15.60–121.00
25.40
16.10–37.80
<0.000 <0.001 0.100 <0.001 <0.001 0.222 0.058 <0.001
SCF
(Stem cell factor)
pg/ml
319.00
169.00–535.00
269.00
78.30–635.00
277.00
117.00–614.00
293.00
154.00–514.00
251.00
81.90–587.00
279.00
127.00–494.00
<0.001 <0.001 0.016 0.009 0.001 0.004 0.344 <0.001
TF
(Tissue factor)
ng/ml
0.28
0.08–0.72
0.25
0.12–0.67
0.24
0.07–0.53
0.43
0.08–23.80
0.32
0.13–0.74
0.30
0.15–0.43
0.064 0.231 0.002 0.833 0.011 0.057 0.187 0.102
TNF-alpha
(Tumor necrosis factor alpha)
pg/ml
58.70
11.70–110.00
60.00
21.20–129.00
60.00
27.60–110.00
76.50
39.20–187.00
73.30
30.30–143.00
69.30
49.80–105.00
0.666 0.294 0.925 0.427 0.200 0.299 0.161 0.296
TPO
(Thrombopoietin)
pg/ml
2.67
1.75–3.55
2.07
0.19–3.76
2.37
0.56–4.48
2.54
1.62–3.68
1.98
0.31–4.08
2.25
0.59–3.64
<0.001 0.002 0.042 0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.069 <0.001
  1. Data are presented as median with range. p values reflect results from inter-group comparisons between IPD, PDLRRK2, and CON using multivariate variance analysis including age, regular intake of anti-inflammatory medication, and study site as co-variates. Correction for multiple testing for the number of groups that have been compared (n = 3 for IPD, PDLRRK2, CON = p < 0.016) was done according to Bonferroni and statistical significance was defined as p < 0.016. In case of significant differences between the three cohorts, we calculated pair-wise post hoc comparison including age, regular intake of anti-inflammatory medication, and study site as co-variates; and in the case of comparison between IPD and PDLRRK2, also disease duration was introduced as co-variate
  2. IPD patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease, PD LRRK2 patients with Parkinson’s disease carrying a LRRK2 mutation, CON healthy control individuals