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Table 4 Overview of levels of inflammatory-related and neurotrophic markers as well as inter-group comparisons for the cohorts NMCLRRK2 (total and prodromal subgroup) and CON stratified by gender

From: Inflammatory profile in LRRK2-associated prodromal and clinical PD

  Female N = 152 Male N = 96 Female Male
Serum Marker NMCLRRK2 N = 63 NMCLRRK2 Prodromal N = 18 CON N = 89 NMCLRRK2 N = 52 NMCLRRK2 Prodromal N = 15 CON N = 44 p value NMCLRRK2 CON p value NMCLRRK2 Prodromal CON p value NMCLRRK2 CON p value NMCLRRK2 Prodromal CON
Alpha fetoprotein ng/ml 0.59 0.06–3.53 0.58 0.19–2.28 0.76 0.07–6.94 0.89 0.14–2.47 0.93 0.31–2.47 0.95 0.33–3.52 0.004 0.051 0.068 0.281
BDNF (Brain-derived neurotrophic factor) ng/ml 17.50 3.30–41.70 26.20 3.85–41.70 19.70 2.92–41.70 13.00 1.40–40.50 6.98 1.74–36.60 17.05 2.88–45.10 0.376 0.258 0.026 0.128
ENA-78 (Epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78) ng/ml 2.14 0.38–5.77 2.26 0.38–5.76 2.03 0.48–7.70 1.63 0.46–5.98 1.71 0.46–3.75 1.54 0.19–4.77 0.610 0.811 0.016 0.203
FABP (Fatty-acid-binding protein) ng/ml 2.87 0.88–14.40 3.03 1.62–7.99 2.87 0.97–12.00 3.71 2.05–17.80 3.80 2.44–17.80 4.04 1.44–11.50 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.096
GH (Growth hormone) ng/ml 2.18 0.08–35.60 3.16 0.08–30.30 1.61 0.11–29.60 0.35 0.06–6.28 0.36 0.06–1.37 0.34 0.07–24.50 0.109 0.266 0.175 0.270
ICAM-1 (Intercellular adhesion molecule 1) ng/ml 156.00 103.00–317.00 157.50 121.00–224.00 160.00 80.00–288.00 154.50 99.10–329.00 155.00 99.10–329.00 150.50 83.40–232.00 0.839 0.930 0.085 0.632
IL-1-beta pg/ml 1.76 0.71–4.41 2.07 0.94–4.41 1.84 0.56–4.10 2.22 0.78–4.68 2.46 0.78–3.67 2.17 1.02–3.30 0.427 0.072 0.471 0.158
IL-4 pg/ml 15.90 4.89–30.00 15.80 9.01–26.80 15.10 6.73–31.50 13.10 5.02–23.60 14.82 8.19–20.90 14.00 5.02–27.00 0.562 0.458 0.333 0.692
IL-6 pg/ml 3.65 1.05–10.60 3.71 2.11–8.77 3.65 1.27–99.10 4.42 2.50–17.50 4.87 2.50–10.30 4.71 2.17–9.57 0.062 0.039 0.246 0.223
IL-8 pg/ml 10.70 4.89–30.00 10.85 3.17–84.00 11.60 3.60–60.30 10.30 2.36–39.20 10.50 6.53–39.20 10.75 2.65–77.50 <0.001 0.039 0.029 0.288
IL-10 pg/ml 3.57 1.78–32.80 3.61 1.80–9.69 3.26 1.78–7.70 3.44 1.78–9.96 3.49 1.78–9.96 3.26 1.78–7.59 0.910 0.809 0.820 0.932
IL-12-p40 ng/ml 0.24 0.07–0.77 0.24 0.07–0.77 0.24 0.07–0.69 0.19 0.08–0.38 0.22 0.09–0.38 0.16 0.07–0.36 0.010 0.001 0.294 0.432
IL-16 pg/ml 497.00 177.00–752.00 532.50 342.00–735.00 551.00 239.00–1370.00 524.00 261.00–1060.00 549.00 419.00–815.00 520.00 268.00–760.00 0.007 0.197 0.100 0.281
IL-18 pg/ml 288.00 110.00–15000.00 290.00 152.00–440.00 282.00 140.00–3360.00 313.00 165.00–872.00 333.00 186.00–872.00 306.00 141.00–681.00 0.551 0.828 0.083 0.084
Leptin ng/ml 17.10 1.90–90.60 24.25 7.16–44.70 15.70 2.10–123.00 7.03 1.48–38.40 9.90 3.60–31.90 7.06 1.14–32.50 0.674 0.035 0.314 0.475
MCP-1 (Monocyte chemotactic protein 1) pg/ml 333.00 40.80–854.00 325.50 199.00–635.00 342.00 113.00–844.00 329.50 12.20–740.00 292.00 12.20–667.00 323.50 120.00–916.00 0.246 0.631 0.148 0.290
MDC (Macrophage-derived chemokine) pg/ml 452.00 216.00–981.00 539.50 216.00–981.00 474.00 93.80–1800.00 464.00 217.00–855.00 423.00 261.00–774.00 483.00 188.00–950.00 0.514 0.504 0.249 0.692
MIP-1-beta (Macrophage inflammatory protein-1-beta) pg/ml 183.00 61.50–720.00 240.00 61.50–436.00 215.00 62.20–955.00 167.00 77.20–736.00 220.00 77.20–736.00 208.00 69.40–2520.00 0.607 0.302 0.240 0.604
MMP-3 (Matrix-metallo-proteinase-3) ng/ml 10.70 4.04–66.60 12.70 6.32–66.60 12.30 6.08–92.90 21.35 11.30–46.80 21.00 11.90–45.20 23.55 9.61–53.80 <0.001 0.055 0.418 0.600
MMP-9 (Matrix-metallo-proteinase-9) ng/ml 20.40 10.80–40.90 22.45 11.90–40.90 19.60 12.60–61.60 25.70 16.10–36.10 25.30 16.10–36.10 25.40 16.10–37.80 0.009 0.007 0.762 0.931
SCF (Stem cell factor) pg/ml 264.00 154.00–520.00 263.00 193.00–404.00 277.00 117.00–614.00 280.00 145.00–635.00 299.00 190.00–458.00 279.00 127.00–494.00 0.013 0.037 0.076 0.166
TF (Tissue factor) ng/ml 0.24 0.12–0.57 0.26 0.15–0.57 0.24 0.07–0.53 0.29 0.13–1.67 0.32 0.16–0.48 0.30 0.15–0.43 0.004 0.004 0.514 0.464
TNF-alpha (Tumor necrosis factor alpha) pg/ml 54.30 27.60–106.00 55.75 41.60–106.00 60.00 27.60–110.00 74.60 33.00–103.00 78.30 38.40–98.60 69.30 49.80–105.00 0.752 0.652 0.149 0.262
TPO (Thrombopoetin) pg/ml 2.08 0.19–3.86 2.24 0.22–3.49 2.37 0.56–4.48 1.62 0.55–4.18 2.05 0.55–3.87 2.37 0.59–3.64 0.175 0.204 0.082 0.115
  1. Data are presented as median with range. p values reflect results from inter-group comparisons between NMCLRRK2 and CON using multivariate variance analysis including age, regular intake of anti-inflammatory medication, and study site as co-variates. Correction for multiple testing for the number of groups that have been compared (n = 2 for NMCLRRK2, CON = p < 0.025) was done according to Bonferroni and statistical significance was defined as p < 0.025
  2. NMC LRRK2 non-manifesting LRRK2 mutation carriers, CON healthy control individuals