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Table 4 Overview of levels of inflammatory-related and neurotrophic markers as well as inter-group comparisons for the cohorts NMCLRRK2 (total and prodromal subgroup) and CON stratified by gender

From: Inflammatory profile in LRRK2-associated prodromal and clinical PD

  Female
N = 152
Male
N = 96
Female Male
Serum Marker NMCLRRK2
N = 63
NMCLRRK2
Prodromal
N = 18
CON
N = 89
NMCLRRK2
N = 52
NMCLRRK2
Prodromal
N = 15
CON
N = 44
p value
NMCLRRK2
CON
p value
NMCLRRK2
Prodromal
CON
p value
NMCLRRK2
CON
p value
NMCLRRK2
Prodromal
CON
Alpha fetoprotein
ng/ml
0.59
0.06–3.53
0.58
0.19–2.28
0.76
0.07–6.94
0.89
0.14–2.47
0.93
0.31–2.47
0.95
0.33–3.52
0.004 0.051 0.068 0.281
BDNF
(Brain-derived neurotrophic factor)
ng/ml
17.50
3.30–41.70
26.20
3.85–41.70
19.70
2.92–41.70
13.00
1.40–40.50
6.98
1.74–36.60
17.05
2.88–45.10
0.376 0.258 0.026 0.128
ENA-78
(Epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78)
ng/ml
2.14
0.38–5.77
2.26
0.38–5.76
2.03
0.48–7.70
1.63
0.46–5.98
1.71
0.46–3.75
1.54
0.19–4.77
0.610 0.811 0.016 0.203
FABP
(Fatty-acid-binding protein)
ng/ml
2.87
0.88–14.40
3.03
1.62–7.99
2.87
0.97–12.00
3.71
2.05–17.80
3.80
2.44–17.80
4.04
1.44–11.50
<0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.096
GH
(Growth hormone)
ng/ml
2.18
0.08–35.60
3.16
0.08–30.30
1.61
0.11–29.60
0.35
0.06–6.28
0.36
0.06–1.37
0.34
0.07–24.50
0.109 0.266 0.175 0.270
ICAM-1
(Intercellular adhesion molecule 1)
ng/ml
156.00
103.00–317.00
157.50
121.00–224.00
160.00
80.00–288.00
154.50
99.10–329.00
155.00
99.10–329.00
150.50
83.40–232.00
0.839 0.930 0.085 0.632
IL-1-beta
pg/ml
1.76
0.71–4.41
2.07
0.94–4.41
1.84
0.56–4.10
2.22
0.78–4.68
2.46
0.78–3.67
2.17
1.02–3.30
0.427 0.072 0.471 0.158
IL-4
pg/ml
15.90
4.89–30.00
15.80
9.01–26.80
15.10
6.73–31.50
13.10
5.02–23.60
14.82
8.19–20.90
14.00
5.02–27.00
0.562 0.458 0.333 0.692
IL-6
pg/ml
3.65
1.05–10.60
3.71
2.11–8.77
3.65
1.27–99.10
4.42
2.50–17.50
4.87
2.50–10.30
4.71
2.17–9.57
0.062 0.039 0.246 0.223
IL-8
pg/ml
10.70
4.89–30.00
10.85
3.17–84.00
11.60
3.60–60.30
10.30
2.36–39.20
10.50
6.53–39.20
10.75
2.65–77.50
<0.001 0.039 0.029 0.288
IL-10
pg/ml
3.57
1.78–32.80
3.61
1.80–9.69
3.26
1.78–7.70
3.44
1.78–9.96
3.49
1.78–9.96
3.26
1.78–7.59
0.910 0.809 0.820 0.932
IL-12-p40
ng/ml
0.24
0.07–0.77
0.24
0.07–0.77
0.24
0.07–0.69
0.19
0.08–0.38
0.22
0.09–0.38
0.16
0.07–0.36
0.010 0.001 0.294 0.432
IL-16
pg/ml
497.00
177.00–752.00
532.50
342.00–735.00
551.00
239.00–1370.00
524.00
261.00–1060.00
549.00
419.00–815.00
520.00
268.00–760.00
0.007 0.197 0.100 0.281
IL-18
pg/ml
288.00
110.00–15000.00
290.00
152.00–440.00
282.00
140.00–3360.00
313.00
165.00–872.00
333.00
186.00–872.00
306.00
141.00–681.00
0.551 0.828 0.083 0.084
Leptin
ng/ml
17.10
1.90–90.60
24.25
7.16–44.70
15.70
2.10–123.00
7.03
1.48–38.40
9.90
3.60–31.90
7.06
1.14–32.50
0.674 0.035 0.314 0.475
MCP-1
(Monocyte chemotactic protein 1)
pg/ml
333.00
40.80–854.00
325.50
199.00–635.00
342.00
113.00–844.00
329.50
12.20–740.00
292.00
12.20–667.00
323.50
120.00–916.00
0.246 0.631 0.148 0.290
MDC
(Macrophage-derived chemokine)
pg/ml
452.00
216.00–981.00
539.50
216.00–981.00
474.00
93.80–1800.00
464.00
217.00–855.00
423.00
261.00–774.00
483.00
188.00–950.00
0.514 0.504 0.249 0.692
MIP-1-beta
(Macrophage inflammatory protein-1-beta)
pg/ml
183.00
61.50–720.00
240.00
61.50–436.00
215.00
62.20–955.00
167.00
77.20–736.00
220.00
77.20–736.00
208.00
69.40–2520.00
0.607 0.302 0.240 0.604
MMP-3
(Matrix-metallo-proteinase-3)
ng/ml
10.70
4.04–66.60
12.70
6.32–66.60
12.30
6.08–92.90
21.35
11.30–46.80
21.00
11.90–45.20
23.55
9.61–53.80
<0.001 0.055 0.418 0.600
MMP-9
(Matrix-metallo-proteinase-9)
ng/ml
20.40
10.80–40.90
22.45
11.90–40.90
19.60
12.60–61.60
25.70
16.10–36.10
25.30
16.10–36.10
25.40
16.10–37.80
0.009 0.007 0.762 0.931
SCF
(Stem cell factor)
pg/ml
264.00
154.00–520.00
263.00
193.00–404.00
277.00
117.00–614.00
280.00
145.00–635.00
299.00
190.00–458.00
279.00
127.00–494.00
0.013 0.037 0.076 0.166
TF
(Tissue factor)
ng/ml
0.24
0.12–0.57
0.26
0.15–0.57
0.24
0.07–0.53
0.29
0.13–1.67
0.32
0.16–0.48
0.30
0.15–0.43
0.004 0.004 0.514 0.464
TNF-alpha
(Tumor necrosis factor alpha)
pg/ml
54.30
27.60–106.00
55.75
41.60–106.00
60.00
27.60–110.00
74.60
33.00–103.00
78.30
38.40–98.60
69.30
49.80–105.00
0.752 0.652 0.149 0.262
TPO
(Thrombopoetin)
pg/ml
2.08
0.19–3.86
2.24
0.22–3.49
2.37
0.56–4.48
1.62
0.55–4.18
2.05
0.55–3.87
2.37
0.59–3.64
0.175 0.204 0.082 0.115
  1. Data are presented as median with range. p values reflect results from inter-group comparisons between NMCLRRK2 and CON using multivariate variance analysis including age, regular intake of anti-inflammatory medication, and study site as co-variates. Correction for multiple testing for the number of groups that have been compared (n = 2 for NMCLRRK2, CON = p < 0.025) was done according to Bonferroni and statistical significance was defined as p < 0.025
  2. NMC LRRK2 non-manifesting LRRK2 mutation carriers, CON healthy control individuals