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Fig. 3 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 3

From: Cortisol-induced immune suppression by a blockade of lymphocyte egress in traumatic brain injury

Fig. 3

S1P or rolipram increases peripheral T cells in TBI mice. a T cell migration was analyzed in 48-well micro chemotaxis chamber, with 20 μM hydrocortisone or vehicle in the upper chamber and 20 nM S1P or vehicle in the lower chamber. The number of migrated cells was assessed 4 h later in the lower chambers. b T cells were pretreated with 10 μM rolipram or saline for 15 min and then with 100 μM hydrocortisone or vehicle treatment for 5 min, after which intracellular cAMP level was measured. c Peripheral T cells were measured before and 1 h after TBI. S1P or rolipram was i.p. injected immediately after TBI. Results are expressed as means ± SEM. n = 9 for (a), 6 for (c), or 4 for (b). Significance was determined using two- (a, b) or one-way (c) ANOVA. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001, and NS, no significance compared between indicated groups. The experiment was repeated three times with similar results

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