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Table 1 Studies examining neuroinflammatory markers in AD models following omega-3 interventions

From: Brain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate microglia cell number and morphology in response to intracerebroventricular amyloid-β 1-40 in mice

Author (year) AD model Species Omega-3 PUFA treatment Timing of inflammation measurement Inflammatory outcome
Minogue (2007) [43] icv aβ 1-40 Rat 125 mg/day EPA vs MUFA × 4 weeks 3 h post-surgery ↓ IFN-γ, IL-1β protein
Lynch (2007) [42] icv aβ 1-40 Rat 125 mg/day EPA vs MUFA × 4 weeks 3 h post-surgery ↓ IL-1β protein
Lebbadi (2014) [46] 3xTg-AD Mouse Fat-1 cross 12 or 20 months old ↓ GFAP,↔iPLA2, cPLA2 protein
Parrott (2015) [47] TgCRND8 Mouse Whole food diet containing salmon, fruits and vegetables 2.46 mg DHA/g diet After 7 months feeding ↑ TNF-α mRNA
Wen (2016) [44] icv aβ 1-40 Rat 150 or 300 mg/kg/day EPA × 27 days 13 days post-surgery ↓ CD11b, GFAP, TNF-α, IL-1β mRNA and protein
Wen (2016) [45] icv aβ 1-40 Rat 300 mg/kg/day DHA-PS or DHA-PC × 27 days 27 days post-surgery ↓ CD11b, GFAP, TNF-α, IL-1β mRNA and protein
  1. amyloid-β, CD cluster of differentiation, DHA docosahexaenoic acid, EPA eicosapentaenoic acid, GFAP glial fibrillary acidic protein, icv intracerebroventricular, IFN interferon, IL interleukin, MUFA monounsaturated fatty acid, PC phosphatidylcholine, PLA phospholipase A, PS phosphatidylserine, TNF tumor necrosis factor