Skip to main content

Advertisement

Fig. 4 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 4

From: The antidepressant-like effects of pioglitazone in a chronic mild stress mouse model are associated with PPARγ-mediated alteration of microglial activation phenotypes

Fig. 4

Effect of pioglitazone treatment on microglia-inhibited M1 activation in the DG of the hippocampus. The expression of M1 markers IL-1β (a), IL-6 (b), TNFα (c), iNOS (d), and CCL2 (e) increased; pioglitazone reduced this increase and GW9662 aggravated this increase in the CMS mice. n = 5. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 vs. Control; # p < 0.05, ## p < 0.01 vs. CMS + Vehicle; $ p < 0.05, $$ p < 0.01 vs. CMS + Piog. Data are expressed as means ± SEM

Back to article page