Skip to main content


Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Fig. 5 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 5

From: The antidepressant-like effects of pioglitazone in a chronic mild stress mouse model are associated with PPARγ-mediated alteration of microglial activation phenotypes

Fig. 5

Effect of pioglitazone treatment on the microglial shift toward an M2 phenotype. The mRNA expression of M2: Ym1 (a), Arg1 (b), IL-4 (c), IL-10 (d), and TGFβ (e) reduced with a 6-week duration of CMS stress. The decreases were attenuated by pioglitazone administration. GW9662 still reduced the expression of these markers. Pioglitazone and GW9662 treated together had no effect on the M2 level of CMS mice. n = 5. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 vs. Control; # p < 0.05, ## p < 0.01 vs. CMS + Vehicle; $ p < 0.05, $$ p < 0.01 vs. CMS + Piog. Data are expressed as means ± SEM

Back to article page