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Fig. 2 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 2

From: Metformin reduces morphine tolerance by inhibiting microglial-mediated neuroinflammation

Fig. 2

Metformin inhibits microglial activation induced by morphine through AMPK activation. a, b, c, e AMPK inhibitor compound C (20 μM) abolished the inhibition effects of metformin on the mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and TLR-4 in morphine-activated BV-2 cells (n = 4). d AMPK inhibitor compound C (20 μM) abolished the inhibition effects of metformin on the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK induced by morphine in BV-2 cells (n = 4). f Metformin increased phosphorylation of AMPK at Thr172 in BV2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. BV2 cells were collected and analyzed 6 h after incubation with metformin (4, 20, and 200 μM) (n = 4). (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; Bonferroni’s post hoc tests)

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