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Fig. 4 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 4

From: Metformin reduces morphine tolerance by inhibiting microglial-mediated neuroinflammation

Fig. 4

Metformin did not markedly affect morphine-induced inflammation in bEND3 cells. ac Morphine with or without metformin treatment showed no notable effects on mRNA expression of TLR4, CCL2, and IL-1β in bEND3 cells (n = 4). d, e Morphine increased the mRNA expression of IL-6 and TNF-α, which were decreased by metformin treatment (100 and 200 μM) (n = 4). The levels of mRNA were determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

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