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Table 1 Characteristics of the four study groups

From: Intrathecal Th17- and B cell-associated cytokine and chemokine responses in relation to clinical outcome in Lyme neuroborreliosis: a large retrospective study

  Group 1
Definite LNB
n = 49
Group 2
Possible LNB pleocytosis
n = 14
Group 3
Possible LNB Ab+
n = 14
Group 4
Non-LNB patients
n = 88
Borrelia-specific AI or Borrelia-specific antibodies in CSF + +
CSF pleocytosis + +
Borrelia-specific IgG/IgM antibodies detected in serum, n (%) 43 (88) 11 (79) 8 (57) 0 (0)
CSF-albumin/S-albumin median (range) 16 (3.4–69)*** 5.8 (2.7–45)* 5.7 (2.4–17) 4.0 (1.5–9.5)
IgG-index median (range) 0.7 (0.0–2.6)*** 0.6 (0.4–0.8)*** 0.5 (0.4–0.6) 0.5 (0.0–0.6)
Men n (%) 29 (59) 9 (64) 8 (57) 39 (44)
Women n (%) 20 (41) 5 (36) 6 (43) 49 (56)
Median age years (range) 32 (4–72) 8.5 (3–39)** 62 (32–82)* 23 (1–83)
Median duration symptoms before LP weeks (range) 2.0 (0.1–104) 0.5 (0.1–3.0)* 2.0 (0.1–156) 4.0 (0.1–520)
Head/neck pain n (%) 32 (65) 6 (43) 8 (57) 27 (31)
Cranial nerve palsy n (%) 22 (45) 9 (64) 0 (0) 20 (23)
Radiculitis n (%) 20 (41) 2 (14) 1 (7) 0 (0)
Patients with duration of symptoms after treatment under 3 months n (%) 40 (87)a 8 (57) 6 (67)b
  1. Pleocytosis: >5 mononuclear cells/mL CSF
  2. LNB Lyme neuroborreliosis, n number of patients, Ab + antibody, AI antibody index, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, S serum, LP lumbar puncture
  3. *Significant difference compared to the non-LNB group (group 4). *p < 0.01, **p < 0.001, ***p < 0.0001
  4. aGroup 1: information was lacking in 3 patients, thus total n = 46
  5. bGroup 3: five patients did not receive any treatment, thus total n = 9