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Table 4 Cytokines/chemokines in serum and CSF in the four study groups

From: Intrathecal Th17- and B cell-associated cytokine and chemokine responses in relation to clinical outcome in Lyme neuroborreliosis: a large retrospective study

  Group 1
Definite LNB
n = 49
Median (interquartile)
Group 2
Possible LNB pleocytosis
n = 14
Median (interquartile)
Group 3 Possible LNB Ab+
n = 14
Median (interquartile)
Group 4
Non-LNB patients
n = 88
Median (interquartile)
S-APRIL (ng/mL) 3.1 (0.8–5.7) 1.4 (0.3–1.8) 2.0 (0.5–4.4) 3.9 (0.0–5.8)
S-BAFF (pg/mL) 705 (471–857) 586 (531–873) 597 (496–763) 730 (581–935)
S-CXCL13 (pg/mL) 67 (38–99) 56 (39–84) 41 (30–58) 54 (34–81)
S-IL-17A (pg/mL) 4.0 (2.6–10) 4.5 (2.9–9.2) 5.6 (2.9–7.1) 9.8 (2.6–24)
S-CXCL1 (pg/mL) 741 (549–861)*** 695 (598–1055) 599 (439–750)*** 1113 (830–2425)
S-CCL20 (pg(mL) 6.1 (3.7–9.3)*** 6.8 (5.3–13)*** 5.2 (3.1–9.8) 0.2 (0.2–8.2)
CSF-APRIL (ng/mL) 7.4 (4.7–17)*** 7.0 (4.6–9.7)*** 4.9 (3.9–6.1)*** 0.0 (0.0–2.9)
CSF-BAFF (pg/mL) 113 (58–191)*** 125 (81–203)*** 0.0 (0.0–76) 0.0 (0.0–25)
CSF-CXCL13 (pg/mL) 974 (738–2394)*** 379 (57–770)*** 3.4 (0.0–8.8)*** 0.0 (0.0–0.0)
CSF-IL-17A (pg/mL) 0.6 (0.0–0.6)*** 0.0 (0.0–0.2) 0.0 (0.0–0.1) 0.0 (0.0–0.0)
CSF-CXCL1 (pg/mL) 52 (16–117)*** 16 (2.1–37) 12 (4.4–21)* 21 (16–26)
CSF-CCL20 (pg/mL) 2.5 (2.2–2.8)*** 2.3 (1.9–2.6)*** 2.2 (1.9–2.5)*** 0.4 (0.4–0.4)
  1. Pleocytosis: >5 mononuclear cells/mL CSF
  2. CSF cerebrospinal fluid, LNB Lyme neuroborreliosis, n number of patients, Ab + antibody, S serum
  3. *Significant difference compared to the non-LNB group (group 4). *p < 0.01, ***p < 0.0001