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Fig. 3 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 3

From: Microglia amplify inflammatory activation of astrocytes in manganese neurotoxicity

Fig. 3

Manganese causes a mixed inflammatory phenotype in microglia. Microglial phenotype after 24-h treatment with 100 μM MnCl2 was assessed via qPCR measurement of M1 (ac, red) and M2 (df, blue) genes or by analyzing changes in morphology via immunofluorescence (gn). M1 genes analyzed included Cd86 (a), Cd32 (b), and Cd16 (c). M2 genes analyzed included Igf-1 (d), Bdnf (e), and Cd206 (f). Data are presented as the mean mRNA fold change ± SEM (Student’s t test; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.0001). Representative ×40 images used to assess morphology from control (g) and 100 μM MnCl2-treated (i) microglia with IBA-1 (green) and DAPI (blue). These images were converted to binary then skeletonized (hj) to assess changes in morphology including the number of end point voxels (k), average branch length (l), number of branches (m), and maximum branch length (n). Data is presented as indicated value ± SEM (Student’s t test; *p < 0.05 and ****p < 0.0001)

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