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Fig. 5 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 5

From: Microglia amplify inflammatory activation of astrocytes in manganese neurotoxicity

Fig. 5

Presence of microglia or microglial-derived factors amplify Mn-dependent activation of astrocytes. Levels of inflammatory gene expression were determined by qPCR in astrocytes following direct treatment with 0 or 100 μM MnCl2 versus treatment with Mn from MCM (ac) or when co-cultured with microglia (df). a Upregulation of astrocyte inflammatory gene expression including Nos2 (a, d), Tnf (b, e), Il-1β (c, f), Il-6 (d, j), Ccl2 (e, k), and Ccl5 (f, l) required the presence of either microglia-derived factors (MCM) or the presence of microglia (co-culture) for significant induction. Data are presented as the mean mRNA fold change ± SEM (two-way ANOVA; asterisks above bars indicate significance from control within a group designated by different color shading; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, and ****p < 0.0001)

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