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Fig. 7 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 7

From: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation attenuates microglial-induced inflammation by inhibiting the HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB pathway following experimental traumatic brain injury

Fig. 7

Schematic illustrating the possible neuroprotective mechanisms of ω-3 PUFA supplementation after TBI. As illustrated, TBI-induced microglial activation initiates a neuron-glia neuroinflammatory response by producing a wide array of proinflammatory factors or mediators such as TNF, IL, and IFN. Under inflammatory conditions, elevated HMGB1 binds to transmembrane toll-like receptors (TLRs) to induce further release of inflammatory cytokines. Supplementation with ω-3 PUFA inhibited TBI-induced microglial activation and the subsequent inflammatory response and also facilitated neuronal recovery through inhibition of HMGB1 translocation and release, and HMGB1-mediated activation of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway

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