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Table 3 Biomarkers and clinical features in ASD and schizophrenia

From: Bridging Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia through inflammation and biomarkers - pre-clinical and clinical investigations

Biomarker Associated clinical features References
ASD Schizophrenia  
Immune function
IL-6 ↑ in patients compared to controls; predominantly in children with regressive autism, associated with more impaired communication and aberrant behaviors; positive correlation with severity of autism and CARS scores   Ashwood et al. 2011; Yang et al. 2015 Chang-JiangYang et al. 2015
  ↑ in patients compared to controls; correlated to negative symptoms and duration of illness Kim et al. 2000
  State marker Miller et al. 2013
TNF-α ↑ in patients compared to controls; positive correlation with the severity of autism; positively correlated to CARS scores   Yang et al. 2015 Chang-JiangYang et al. 2015
  ↓ in patients compared to controls; negative correlation to PANSS total score, general psychopathology, positive and cognitive subscales Lv, Tan, 2015; Noto, Maes, 2015a
  Trait marker Miller et al. 2011
TNF-R1 and TNF-R2 NF TNF-R1 significantly correlated with positive symptoms (PANSS) Hope et al. 2013
↑soluble forms, and associated with treatment resistance Noto, Maes, 2015a
IL-1β ↑ in patients compared to controls; predominantly in children with regressive autism, associated with more impaired communication and aberrant behaviors   Ashwood et al. 2011
  State marker Miller et al. 2011
IL-1RA NF Significantly correlated with negative symptoms (PANSS) Hope et al. 2013
IL-12 ↑ in patients compared to controls; predominantly in children with regressive autism, associated with more impaired communication and aberrant behaviors   Ashwood et al. 2011
  Trait marker Miller et al. 2011
IFN-ϒ NF Trait marker Miller et al. 2011
TGF-β ↓TGF-β1 in autistic children compared to controls or children with other DD; significant correlation with reduced adaptive behaviors and worse behavioral symptoms   Ashwood et al. 2008
  State marker Miller et al. 2013
Chemokines ↑ osteopontin in autistic children compared to controls; positive correlation with CARS scores and disease severity   Al-Ayadhi and Mostafa, 2011
↑ IL-8 in patients compared to controls; predominantly in children with regressive autism, associated with more impaired communication and aberrant behaviors   Ashwood et al. 2011
  ↑ CCL11 and MIP-1α; CCL11 positively associated with negative symptoms ↑ MCP-1 associated with treatment resistance ↓ IP-10 Noto, Maes, 2015a
IL-2 NF ↓ in patients than controls; Inversely associated with negative symptoms; in patients negative correlation between IL-2 and total score in negative subscale of PANSS Noto, Maes, 2015a; Azevedo et al. 2014
  ↑ in patients compared to controls; significant inverse relationship with positive subscale of PANSS Zhang et al. 2002
IL-2R NF Trait marker; ↑ in patients compared to controls; associated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total scores, negative symptom and general psychopathology subscale scores Miller et al. 2013; Bresee and Rapaport, 2009
Lymphocyte populations   ↑ total lymphocytes, ↑T lymphocytes CD3+; ↑T helper CD4+; ↑CD4/CD8; ↓proportion T lymphocytes CD3+ in drug naïve FEP Miller et al. 2013
NF ↑ proportion of CD4+ and CD56+ in acutely relapsed patients; CD4/CD8 ratio in a state marker; CD56 is a trait marker Miller et al. 2013
Immunoglobulins and antibodies ↓ plasma IgG and IgM in autistic children compared to other DD and healthy controls; correlated with behavioral severity in autistic children NF Heuer et al. 2008
↑ anti-ganglioside M1 in autistic children compared to healthy controls; correlated with disease severity and CARS scores   Mostafa and Al-Ayadhi, 2011
↑ anti-neuronal antibodies in autistic children compared to healthy controls; correlated with disease severity   Mostafa and Al-Ayadhi, 2012
Oxidative stress
↓ pyridoxal NF Acute stage schizophrenia The greater the decrease in pyridoxal levels (admission to discharge) the less improvement in symptoms Katsuta et al. 2014
↑ pentosodine ↓ pyridoxal NF Clinical features of treatment resistant schizophrenia; possible biomarkers A rai et al. 2010; Miyashita et al. 2014
  1. NF no studies found; state marker increased in acute phase; normalizes with treatment; trait marker remains elevated in acute phase and following treatment