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Table 5 Biomarkers and anti-psychotic treatment in ASD and schizophrenia

From: Bridging Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia through inflammation and biomarkers - pre-clinical and clinical investigations

Biomarker Associated clinical features References
ASD Schizophrenia  
Immune function
IL-6 NF ↑ in drug-naïve FEP patients compared to healthy controls; ↓ after 10-week treatment with risperidone; ↓ in patients with depressive symptoms (but not in those without); clozapine treatment appears to ↑IL-6; treatment with typical anti-psychotics ↓ IL-6 and sIL-6R; ↓after anti-psychotic treatment in relapsed patients ↑IL-6R in patients compared to controls Noto et al. 2015; Song et al. 2014b; Tourjman et al. 2013;Maes et al., 1995; Maes et al. 1997; Borovcanin et al. 2013; Drzyzga et al. 2006
TNF-α NF ↑ in drug-naïve FEP patients compared to healthy controls; ↓ after 10-week treatment with risperidone; ↓ in patients with depressive symptoms (but not in those without) Noto et al. 2015
  Anti-psychotic treatment reported to have no effect or ↓ levels of TNF-α; clozapine reported to ↑ TNF-α Tourjman et al. 2013; Meyer et al. 2011; Drzyzga et al. 2006
sTNF-R NF Clozapine treatment appears to increase sTNF-R Tourjman et al. 2013
IL-1β NF ↑ in drug-naïve FEP patients compared to healthy controls; after risperidone treatment levels returned to baseline at 6 months; ↓levels after anti-psychotic treatment Song et al. 2014b; Tourjman et al. 2013; Meyer et al. 2011
IL-1RA Levels did not change after 8-week treatment with risperidone despite clinical improvement ↑ drug-naïve FEP patients; ↓ after 6-week treatment with risperidone or olanzapine anti-psychotic treatment reported to have no effect on IL-1RA; clozapine treatment↑ IL-1RA; ↑ sIL-1RA with anti-psychotic treatment De Witte et al. 2014; Tourjman et al. 2013; Maes et al. 1997; Meyer et al. 2011; Tobiasova et al. 2011
IL-12 NF Possibly ↑ with anti-psychotic treatment Tourjman et al. 2013
IFN-ϒ Levels did not change after 8-week treatment with risperidone despite clinical improvement ↓ after anti-psychotic treatment Tourjman et al. 2013; Tobiasova et al. 2011
TGF-β NF ↑ in un-medicated FEP and schizophrenia relapse patients; further increased after treatment with anti-psychotics in FEP; unaffected by anti-psychotic treatment Borovcanin et al. 2013; Tourjman et al. 2013
Chemokines ↓ Eotaxin and MCP-1 after 8-week treatment with risperidone; MCP-1 levels did not change after 8-week treatment with risperidone despite clinical improvement in another study   Choi et al. 2013; Tobiasova et al. 2011
↑EGF in children with ASD; levels did not change after 8-week treatment with risperidone despite clinical improvement   Tobiasova et al. 2011
  ↓CC16 in patients compared to controls; increase after treatment with clozapine Maes et al. 1997
  ↑S100B in drug-naïve and medicated patients compared to controls and also in drug-naïve compared to medicated patients; ↓S100B with haloperidol and clozapine Zhang, Xiu, 2010a; Zhang et al. 2010a (VER)
IL-2 NF Unaffected by anti-psychotic treatment; ↓ by first and second generation anti-psychotics Tourjman et al. 2013; Drzyzga et al. 2006
IL-2R NF Increased in younger patients; treatment with clozapine increases sIL-2R levels Maes et al. 1994
IL-10 ↑ drug-naïve FEP patients; ↓after treatment with risperidone or olanzapine; changes in IL-10 correlated with improvements in negative, general and total symptom scores; another study reported no effect of anti-psychotics on IL-10   De Witte et al. 2014; Noto et al. 2015; Tourjman et al. 2013
IL-4   ↓ after 10-week treatment with risperidone; another study reported no effect with anti-psychotics; ↓ after anti-psychotic treatment in FEP and relapse patents Noto et al. 2015; Tourjman et al. 2013; Borovcanin et al. 2013
IL-15   ↑ drug-naïve in FEP De Witte et al. 2014
IL-13, IL-17, IL-1 ↓ IL-13 in children with ASD compared to controls; levels of IL-13, IL-17, and IL-1 did not change after 8-week treatment with risperidone despite clinical improvement IL-13 possibly ↓ by anti-psychotic treatment Tobiasova et al. 2011; Tourjman et al. 2013
IL-27   ↓ after anti-psychotic treatment in FEP Borovcanin et al. 2013
Oxidative stress
SOD and NO levels NF ↑in patients with schizophrenia compared to controls Risperidone and haloperidol ↓ superoxide dismutase levels (but not nitric oxide levels) ↓ SOD levels at baseline predicted greater symptom improvement during treatment and greater change in SOD was correlated with greater symptom improvement Zhang et al. 2012b
PON1 activity, TRAP, and LOOH levels NF ↓PON1 activity and ↑TRAP in FEP ↑PON1 activity and↓ LOOH levels after 11 weeks of risperidone treatment Noto et al. 2015b
  1. NF no studies found