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Table 6 Predictors of response to antipsychotics

From: Bridging Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia through inflammation and biomarkers - pre-clinical and clinical investigations

Biomarker Response to antipsychotic ASD Schizophrenia
Genes
HTR2A c.-1438G>A, DRD3 Ser9Gly, HTR2C c.-995G>A and ABCB1 c.1236C>T polymorphisms Polymorphisms that predicted clinical improvement with risperidone in children with ASD Correia et al., 2010 NF
 GBP6, RABL5, RNF213, NFKBID, and RNF40 Correlated with response to risperidone Lit et al., 2012 NF
 Multiple genes associated with neuronal cell growth Associated with a positive response to risperidone Bent & Hendren, 2010 NF
 A-2518G polymorphism of the MCP-1 Treatment resistance associated with the G-allele NF Mundo et al., 2005
 SNAP-25 (Mnll polymorphism) Associated with changes in PANSS after 14 weeks of antipsychotics NF Muller et al., 2005
 5HTT gene Association between the 5-HTT-LPR variants and early negative symptom response to treatment in FEP NF Vazquez-Bourgon et al., 2010
Minerals
 ↓ body zinc status (while taking risperidone) Associated with greater improvement in irritability Arnold et al., 2010 NF
Hormones
 ↓insulin levels at T0 Predictors of symptom improvement after antipsychotic treatment NF Schwarz, Guest, 2012
 leptin, proinsulin, TGF-α Associated with differences between the short- and long-term relapse   
 ↑leptin, insulin, C-peptide In patients who relapsed later but no change in those relapsing earlier   
 Blunted CAR  Diurnal cortisol levels  CAR FEP compared to controls negatively correlated with the number of recent stressful events positively correlated with a history of sexual childhood abuse NF Mondelli et al., 2010
 Persistent ↓CAR, ↑IL-6 and IFN-ϒ In non-responders (12 week treatment with antipsychotics) in FEP NF Mondelli et al., 2015
 More blunted CAR Associated with worse cognitive function NF Aas et al., 2011
 Baseline postdexamethasone cortisol levels  Persistent non-suppression of cortisol levels following the dexamethasone test after 4 weeks of antipsychotics Unrelated to outcome at 4 weeks or 1 year Associated with poor clinical outcome NF Tandon et al., 1991
Neurotransmitters and metabolites
 ↓pMHPG (plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol) FEP patients who responded to treatment (8 weeks of antipsychotics) NF Nagaoka et al., 1997
 ↑baseline pHVA and week-1 pHVA (plasma homovanillic acid) levels In responders compared to non-responders of FEP following 6 weeks of antipsychotic treatment NF Koreen et al., 1994
 Relatively normal striatal dopamine synthesis and elevated anterior cingulate cortex glutamate levels Treatment resistance in schizophrenia NF Demjaha et al., 2014
 ↑pretreatment prolactin response to D-fenfluramine test ↓ response to haloperidol in FEP NF Mohr et al., 1998
 3-OHKY (3-hydroxykynurenine) quinolinic acid at baseline Predicted improvement following 4 week treatment with antipsychotics in FEP (lowest concentrations associated with the greatest improvement) NF Condray et al., 2011
  1. NF no studies found