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Fig. 1 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 1

From: Retinopathy of prematurity: inflammation, choroidal degeneration, and novel promising therapeutic strategies

Fig. 1

Summary of the current inflammatory and neuronal-derived factors involved in the pathogenesis of ROP. At birth, premature infants are deficient in factors essential for healthy blood vessel development. When premature infants are exposed to excess supplemental oxygen, the latter contributes to retinal and choroidal vascular obliteration due to oxidant stress, suppression of oxygen-regulated pro-angiogenic factors, and an excessive production of pro-inflammatory factors. Because of the vascular dropout, a compensatory, albeit aberrant and destructive, neovascularization occurs, driven by hypoxia-induced angiogenic factors. Some of the current therapeutic interventions rely on invasive procedures, such as laser photocoagulation, whereby affected areas of the retina are cauterized. Other treatments, including anti-VEGF therapy, as well as IGF-1 and omega-3, are currently being more thoroughly evaluated. In addition, the development of anti-inflammatory drugs as well as, future regenerative therapeutic interventions involving stem cells are also being explored and considered for the treatment of ROP

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