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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the patient groups

From: Cerebrospinal fluid CXCL13 as a diagnostic marker of neuroborreliosis in children: a retrospective case-control study

  AI Pleo. n (M/F) Agea (years) CSF cell counta (cells/ul) Mononuclear cellsa (%) Symptoms durationa (days) Facial palsyb Headacheb Cranial nerv palsyb Negative serologyb
Definite LNB + + 53 (30/23) 7.7 (2.2–15.5) 154.0 (8–1289) 98.5 (74–100) 9.0 (0–109) 35 (66) 15 (28) 1 (2) 5 (9)
Possible LNB    41 (17/24) 8.3 (1.8–15.7) 47.0 (3–999) 96.4 (10–100) 4.0 (0–128) 8 (20) 20 (49) 4 (10) 25 (61)
 AI neg. + 27 (10/17) 8.8 (1.8–15.7) 76.0 (7–999) 97.7 (10–100) 3.0 (0–14) 5 (19) 13 (48) 4 (15) 13 (48)
 AI nd. nd + 13 (6/7) 6.2 (2.7–15.5) 31.0 (16–448) 96.0 (59–100) 6.0 (1–128) 2 (15) 7 (54) 0 (0) 12 (92)
 AI pos. + 1 (1/0) 7.9 3.0 nd 14.0 1 (100) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Non-LNB    91 (49/42) 10.0 (1.1–17.7) 2.0 (0–1174) 75.7 (18–99) 3.0 (0–166) 23 (25) 33 (36) 6 (7) 69 (76)
 VZV −/+ 4 (3/1) 7.8 (1.8–17.7) 7.5 (0–579) 95.9 (92–99) 5.5 (0–10) 2 (50) 1 (25) 0 (0) 4 (100)
 Enterovirus −/+ 20 (10/10) 7.2 (1.1–15.2) 194.0 (0–1174) 76.5 (18–98) 1.0 (0–21) 0 (0) 13 (65) 0 (0) 17 (85)
 TBEV + 5 (4/1) 10.8 (5.6–15) 80.0 (43–104) 71.6 (28–90) 3.0 (2–5) 0 (0) 5 (100) 0 (0) 3 (60)
 Inflammatory 8 (1/7) 10.4 (5–15.5) 2.0 (0–5) nd 2.5 (1–31) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 5 (63)
 Facial palsy 19 (11/8) 11.7 (1.5–15.7) 2.0 (0–5) nd 3.0 (0–38) 19 (100) 0 (0) 0 (0) 14 (74)
 Headache 11 (3/8) 13.8 (6.1–16.9) 0.0 (0–3) nd 31.0 (0–166) 0 (0) 11 (100) 0 (0) 7 (64)
 Others 24 (17/7) 6.6 (2.1–17.4) 1.0 (0–5) nd 4.0 (0–162) 2 (8) 3 (13) 6 (25) 19 (79)
Total    185 (96/89) 8.2 (1.1–17.7) 34.0 (0–1289) 97.1 (10–100) 5.0 (0–166) 66 (36) 68 (37) 11 (6) 99 (54)
  1. Symptoms duration is until the diagnostic lumbar puncture
  2. Negative serology means negative Borrelien-specific IgM and IgG screening test in blood at initial work-up
  3. The “Inflammatory” group included three Guillain-Barré syndrome, three retrobulbar optic neuritis, one acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), and one parainfectious brainstem encephalitis
  4. LNB Lyme neuroborreliosis, AI antibody index, Pleo. pleocytosis (>5 cells/μl in CSF), n numbers, M/F male/female, neg. negative, nd not determined, pos. positive, VZV varicella-zoster virus, TBEV tick-borne encephalitis virus
  5. aData are presented as median (range)
  6. bData are presented as number (%)