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Fig. 1 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 1

From: Lidocaine alleviates morphine tolerance via AMPK-SOCS3-dependent neuroinflammation suppression in the spinal cord

Fig. 1

Lidocaine potentiates acute morphine analgesic effect and suppresses chronic morphine tolerance. The tail-flick test was performed to evaluate the effect of lidocaine on the morphine tolerance. Data were shown as a percentage of MPE. a, c Lidocaine co-administration with morphine potentiated acute morphine analgesic effect. Morphine (10 μg/10 μL, i.t.) with or without lidocaine (100, 200, and 400 μg/10 μL) was injected into mice, and analgesia was assessed at the first day (n = 8). b, d Lidocaine co-administration with morphine suppressed chronic morphine tolerance. Morphine (10 μg/10 μL) was intrathecally injected with different doses of lidocaine (100, 200, and 400 μg/10 μL) once daily, and the MPE was measured 1 h after the first injection of each day (n = 8). e Immunofluorescence images and analysis showed the activation of c-Fos and CGRP after morphine administration in the spinal cord. The quantification of c-Fos and CGRP immunofluorescence were respectively represented as the number of c-Fos-positive cells and mean fluorescence intensity of CGRP in the dorsal horns (n = 4). Lidocaine (100, 200, and 400 μg/10 μL, i.t.) was administered once daily for 7 days. After the final administration, spinal samples were collected. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001 versus the saline group; ### p < 0.001 versus the morphine-treated group. Scale bar 75 μm

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