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Fig. 2 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 2

From: Lidocaine alleviates morphine tolerance via AMPK-SOCS3-dependent neuroinflammation suppression in the spinal cord

Fig. 2

Lidocaine significantly attenuates chronic morphine-induced microglial activation and suppresses neuroinflammation-related proinflammatory cytokines in the spinal cord. a Immunofluorescence images and analysis showed 200 μg/10 μL lidocaine nearly completely inhibited the activation of microglia evoked by morphine in the spinal cord (n = 4). b Immunoblot results demonstrated that lidocaine inhibited morphine-induced upregulation of phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, but not the p38 total protein (n = 4). c Lidocaine markedly inhibited morphine-induced upregulation of p-p65 (n = 4). d, e Immunoblot results showed that the administration of lidocaine decreased the levels of mature IL-1β, total IL-1β, and TNF-α evoked by morphine. Lidocaine (100, 200, and 400 μg/10 μL, i.t.) was administered once daily for 7 days (n = 4). After the final administration, spinal samples were collected. **p < 0.01 and ***p < 0.001 versus the saline group; # p < 0.05, ## p < 0.01, and ### p < 0.001 versus the morphine-treated group. Scale bar 75 μm

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