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Table 3 Summary of the proposed effects of distinct cytokines on the severity of neonatal asphyxia

From: Distinct cytokine patterns may regulate the severity of neonatal asphyxia—an observational study

  Pro-inflammatory Anti-inflammatory
Contribution to better outcome IL-1β: rapid decrease, higher initial prevalence, and extravasation in severe insult
G-CSF: rapid decrease in moderate insult, higher plasma levels in severe insult
TGF-β: increased production and extravasation in moderate insult
IDO: early compensation up to 1 week
Contribution to worse outcome TNF-α: elevated intracellular levels up to 1 month
IL-17: high prevalence in severe insult up to 1 month
IL-6: higher plasma levels in severe insult at 1 week, decrease in moderate insult by 1 month
Treg: unremarkable difference at 24 h, not upregulated