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Fig. 2 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 2

From: Decreased microglial activation through gut-brain axis by prebiotics, probiotics, or synbiotics effectively restored cognitive function in obese-insulin resistant rats

Fig. 2

Effects of prebiotics, probiotics, or synbiotics on gut inflammation and endotoxemia induced by long-term HFD consumption. ac The pro-inflammatory cytokine including IL-1β expression, IL-6 and IL-10, anti-inflammatory cytokine, expression respectively. d Serum LPS level of ND- and HFD-fed rats at 12th week. e Serum LPS level of ND- and HFD-fed rats after receiving prebiotics, probiotics, or synbiotics. ND: 12-week-normal diet-fed rats; HFD: 12-week high fat-fed rats; V: rats receiving PBS as vehicle; PE: rats receiving prebiotics; PO: rats receiving probiotics; C: rats receiving combination of prebiotics and probiotics as synbiotics (N = 6 of each group) *p < 0.05 in comparison with the ND-fed rats; †p < 0.05 in comparison with the HFD-fed rats receiving vehicle

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