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Fig. 6 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 6

From: Decreased microglial activation through gut-brain axis by prebiotics, probiotics, or synbiotics effectively restored cognitive function in obese-insulin resistant rats

Fig. 6

Effects of prebiotics, probiotics, or synbiotics on cognitive function. a Time to reach the platform in acquisition test of Morris Water maze test of ND- and HFD-fed rats at 12th week. b Mean time spent in target quadrant of ND- and HFD-fed rats at 12th week. c Time to reach the platform in acquisition test of Morris Water maze test after receiving prebiotics, probiotics, or synbiotics. d Mean time spent in target quadrant after receiving prebiotics, probiotics, or synbiotics. ND: 24-week-normal diet-fed rats; HFD: 24-week high fat-fed rats; V: rats receiving PBS as vehicle; PE: rats receiving prebiotics; PO: rats receiving probiotics; C: rats receiving combination of prebiotics and probiotics as synbiotics (N = 6 of each group) *p < 0.05 in comparison with the ND-fed rats; †p < 0.05 in comparison with the HFD-fed rats receiving vehicle

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