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Table 2 The metabolic parameters after 12 weeks of vehicle, prebiotic, probiotic, or synbiotics administration in ND-fed rats and HFD-fed rats

From: Decreased microglial activation through gut-brain axis by prebiotics, probiotics, or synbiotics effectively restored cognitive function in obese-insulin resistant rats

Metabolic parameters ND HFD
NDV NDPE NDPO NDC HFV HFPE HFPO HFC
Body weight (g) 501 ± 9 495 ± 11 517 ± 14 510 ± 13 680 ± 24* 605 ± 30*† 689 ± 33* 600 ± 34*†
Food intake (g/day) 20 ± 0.5 19 ± 0.7 21 ± 0.9 21 ± 0.4 25 ± 0.4* 23 ± 0.7* 25 ± 0.5* 24 ± 0.5*
Visceral fat (g) 25 ± 2 27 ± 3 29 ± 3 33 ± 2 63 ± 3* 43 ± 5*† 65 ± 3* 48 ± 5*†
Plasma glucose (mg/d) 132.3 ± 7 140.5 ± 8 137.5 ± 8 141.6 ± 12 139.2 ± 9 142.1 ± 6 137.8 ± 4 132.1 ± 14
Plasma insulin (ng/ml) 4.8 ± 0.8 5.5 ± 1 5.4 ± 0.8 4.0 ± 1 7.8 ± 0.5* 5.5 ± 0.5† 5.2 ± 1† 5.0 ± 1†
HOMA index 40.3 ± 10 50.0 ± 14 55.8 ± 11 50.9 ± 12 94.6 ± 12* 55.6 ± 6† 60.5 ± 8† 39.8 ± 5†
Plasma glucose AUC (AUCg) (mg/dl × min × 104) 2.1 ± 0.1 2.0 ± 0.1 2.2 ± 1 2.3 ± 0.1 2.9 ± 0.1* 2.1 ± 0.1† 2.4 ± 0.1† 2.2 ± 0.1†
Plasma total cholesterol (mg/dl) 74.4 ± 4 68.7 ± 4 65.9 ± 5 58.6 ± 5 111.1 ± 8* 73.9 ± 3† 78.8 ± 4† 75.2 ± 6†
Plasma total triglyceride (mg/dl) 78.3 ± 13 71.5 ± 6 68.7 ± 8 77.7 ± 7 84.9 ± 10 73.3 ± 6 78.3 ± 4 74.5 ± 4
Plasma LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 24.2 ± 5 22.3 ± 2 23.5 ± 6 22.7 ± 6 65.7 ± 10* 33.1 ± 4† 35.3 ± 5† 27.1 ± 5†
Serum MDA (μmol/dl) 3.72 ± 0.2 3.92 ± 0.1 3.91 ± 0.1 3.64 ± 0.2 5.76 ± 0.5* 3.31 ± 0.2† 3.23 ± 0.3† 3.16 ± 0.2†
Brain MDA (μmol/mg protein) 7.59 ± 1.8 8.10 ± 1.9 6.58 ± 1.6 2.01 ± 1.0* 15.0 ± 2.1* 8.23 ± 1.9† 5.59 ± 1.1† 1.84 ± 0.7*†
Brain IL-1β (fold change/gapdh) 1.39 ± 0.5 0.45 ± 0.1 2.03 ± 0.1 1.82 ± 0.4 0.35 ± 0.1 0.71 ± 0.3 1.08 ± 0.6 0.51 ± 0.2
Brain IL-6 (fold change/gapdh) 1.27 ± 0.5 1.30 ± 0.8 10.68 ± 5.4 7.54 ± 1.2 1.10 ± 0.4 1.29 ± 0.1 3.57 ± 2.7 0.80 ± 0.2
  1. *P < 0.05 in comparison with the NDV group
  2. P < 0.05 in comparison with the HFV group