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Fig. 1 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 1

From: Upregulation of HMGB1-TLR4 inflammatory pathway in focal cortical dysplasia type II

Fig. 1

The protein expression of HMGB1-TLR4 pathway in FCD II whole brain tissue samples. Western blot was performed for detecting the biomarker protein expression of HMGB1-TLR4 pathway. a TLR4 protein expression in FCD lesion tissue was higher than that in peri-FCD tissue. b HMGB1 protein expression in the cytoplasm inside the FCD brain tissue was significantly higher than that in the peri-FCD tissue, but total expression had no significant difference between FCD and peri-FCD tissue. c MyD88 protein expression levels normalized to TLR4 in FCD lesion were higher than those in peri-FCD. d The expression ratio of K63 polyubiquitin chain to TRAF6 was increased in FCD lesion tissue, compared to that in peri-FCD tissue. eg Phosphorylation levels of IKK-β, IκB-α, and NF-κB p65 in lesion tissue were higher than those in peri-FCD. h, i The expression levels of IL-1β and TNF-α were increased in FCD lesion. β-actin was used as a loading control. The results are expressed as the ratio of biomarkers to β-actin. The values are the mean ± SEM (n = 8) (**P < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001)

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