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Fig. 3 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 3

From: Upregulation of HMGB1-TLR4 inflammatory pathway in focal cortical dysplasia type II

Fig. 3

The expression and distribution of TLR4 and HMGB1 in neurons of FCD lesion and control. Immunofluorescence double staining for the expression and neuronal localization of TLR4 and HMGB1. TLR4 immunoreactivity (in green) in FCD lesion tissue was detected in neurons (as indicated by arrows in d) which were visualized by the neuronal marker NeuN (in red) (ad), but not in control tissue (eh). The percentage of TLR4-postive neurons in FCD and peri-FCD tissue was presented (q). HMGB1 immunoreactivity (in green) was mainly colocalized with NeuN in lesion area (il; as indicated by arrows in l), but with Hoechst 33342 (in cyan) in peri-FCD area (mp). The percentage of HMGB1-NeuN colocalization in lesion and control area was presented (r). Scale bars = 40 μm. The values are the mean ± SEM (n = 8) (**P < 0.01)

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