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Fig. 5 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 5

From: Hypoxia mimetic activity of VCE-004.8, a cannabidiol quinone derivative: implications for multiple sclerosis therapy

Fig. 5

VCE-004.8 blunts IL-17-induced M1 polarization and induces Arg1+ expression. a RAW264.7 cells were pre-incubated with VCE.004.8 for 18 h and stimulated with IL-17 for 24 h. The mRNA expression for Tnf-α, IL-6, Ccl2, and Ccl4 was quantified by qPCR and normalized versus GAPDH. Data represent the mean ± SD (n = 3). *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 rmIL-17-treated cells vs untreated cells; #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01 rmIL-17 + VCE-004.8 vs rmIL-17-treated cells (one-way ANOVA followed Tukey’s test). b RAW264.7 cells were treated with VCE-004.8 in the presence or absence of rmIL-4 for 24 h. The mRNA expression for Arg-1, Mrc-1, and IL-10 was quantified by qPCR and normalized versus GAPDH. Data represent the mean ± SD (n = 3). *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 rmIL-4-treated cells vs untreated cells; #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01, ###p < 0.001 rmIL-4 + VCE-004.8 vs rmIL-4-treated cells (one-way ANOVA followed Tukey’s test). c RAW264.7 cells were treated with VCE-004.8, rmIL-4, or GW9662 for 24 h, and the expression levels of Arg-1 were determined by qPCR. Data represent the mean ± SD (n = 3). *p < 0.05 rmIL-4-treated cells vs untreated cells; ***p < 0.001 VCE-004.8 vs untreated cells (one-way ANOVA followed Tukey’s test). d RAW264.7 cells were transiently transfected with pGL3-mArg1 promoter/enhancer − 31/− 3810 and then stimulated with VCE-004.8 for 20 h and assayed for luciferase activity. Fold induction relative to transfected cells untreated is shown. Data represent the mean ± SD (n = 3). ***p < 0.001 VCE-004.8-treated cells vs untreated cells (one-way ANOVA followed Tukey’s test). e Serum-starved BV2 cells were treated with VCE-004.8, rmIL-4, SR144528, GW9662, RGZ, or WIN 55,212-2 for 24 h, and the expression levels of Arg-1 were determined by qPCR. Data represent the mean ± SD (n = 3). *p < 0.05 rmIL-4-treated cells vs untreated cells; ***p < 0.001 VCE-004.8 vs untreated cells (one-way ANOVA followed Tukey’s test). f BV2 cells were treated with VCE-004.8 at the concentrations indicated and further analyzed for PPARγ and arginase 1 expression by immunoblot

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