DMF reduces LPS-induced acute neuroinflammation. Cx3cr1gfp/+ mice were treated with a single-dose LPS injection (1 mg/Kg, ip). DMF (45 mg/Kg) was administered through ip injection. At 24 h after LPS injection, the mouse brains were harvested and subjected to analyses. a Representative images show GFP+ cells in the hippocampus of Cx3cr1gfp/+ mice that received saline, LPS + vehicle (VEH), or LPS + DMF treatment. N = 7 mice/group. Cell nuclei were stained with DAPI (blue). Scale bar, 40 μm. b Mononuclear cells were isolated from the brain homogenates and subjected to FACS analysis. The levels of CD80 marker on gated GFP+ cell populations were examined. Representative flow plots from three treatment groups, saline, LPS + VEH, LPS + DMF are shown. N = 7 mice/group. ISO, the isotype control antibody. c The proportion of CD80+ cells was determined. N = 7 mice/group. **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, by one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni’s post hoc multiple comparison test. d Effects of DMF treatment on inflammatory mediators induced by LPS injection in Nrf2+/+ (Cx3cr1gfp/+) or Nrf2−/− mice. The mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines or chemokine (tnf, il1b, or ccl2) in the brain were measured using qPCR. N = 7 mice/group for Nrf2+/+ mice. N = 5–6 mice/group for Nrf2−/− mice. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, by one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni’s post hoc multiple comparison test.