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Fig. 3 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 3

From: β-arrestin2 functions as a key regulator in the sympathetic-triggered immunodepression after stroke

Fig. 3

Effects of the sympathetic system activity on the levels of cytokine secreted by splenic monocytes/macrophages 3 days after MCAO. The secretion of cytokines was detected by ELISA. The stimulation of LPS induced high secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-6 (a), TNF-α (b), IL-1β (c), and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (d) from splenic monocytes in the sham + saline group. The secretion of these pro-inflammatory cytokines (ac) in the MCAO + saline group was significantly reduced compared with the sham + saline group. In addition, IL-10 level was significantly increased in the MCAO + saline group (d). However, blockade of the sympathetic activity substantially raised secretion levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine (ac) and decreased IL-10 (d) level despite MCAO establishment. n = 8 animals per group, and each experiment was independently replicated three times. *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01 by one-way ANOVA

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