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Fig. 2 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 2

From: Urate inhibits microglia activation to protect neurons in an LPS-induced model of Parkinson’s disease

Fig. 2

Urate inhibits LPS-induced activation of rat primary microglia. ac Primary microglia were pretreated for 30 min with 10, 50, or 100 μM urate followed by 10 ng/ml LPS for 24 h; NO (a, n = 4), IL-1β (b, n = 3), and TNF-α (c, n = 3) levels in the culture supernatant were measured by ELISA. d Primary microglia were pretreated with indicated concentrations of urate followed by LPS, and iNOS level was detected by Western blotting (up, n = 4). Protein band intensity was normalized to β-actin and is expressed as fold difference relative to the control group (down). e Primary microglia were pretreated with 100 μM urate followed by LPS, and microglia activation was evaluated by immunofluorescence detection of Iba-1 (red) and cell nuclei were stained with DAPI (blue) (left, n = 3). Branch length and cell body diameter were quantified with ImageJ software (right). Scale bar = 10 μm. f, g Primary microglia cells were pretreated for 30 min with indicated concentrations of urate followed by LPS for 24 h; IL-10 (f, n = 4) and TGF-β1 (g, n = 4) levels in the culture supernatant were measured by ELISA. Untreated cells served as a control (ctr). Data represent the mean ± SD. *p < 0.05  ***p < 0.001 vs. control group; #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01, ###p < 0.001 vs. LPS group (one-way analysis of variance)

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