Skip to main content

Table 2 Inflammatory conditions

From: The role of inflammation in the development of epilepsy

Systemic inflammatory condition Associated inflammatory findings Odds ratio (compared to control group) Prevalence of epilepsy Incidence of epilepsy
Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) Antibodies: ANA, dsDNA, SS-A/SS-B.Upregulates anti- MAP-2 and anti NMDR presence in CSF
IL-1β, Il-8, IFN gamma activate microglia. IL-10 upregulates spinogenesis
7-fold
[91]
2.5% [91]
Up to 8 times higher than non-SLE population
[92, 93]
2.86-fold greater than non-SLE cohort [96]
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) Upregulated TNF-α,IL-1 and IL-6 cytokines 3.5-fold [91] 1.2% [91] 1.27-fold greater than control
cohort [130]
Type I diabetes Autoantibodies GAD 45 5.2-fold [91] 1.8% [91]
2–3.7% [120]
2.2-fold greater than control cohort [143]
Celiac disease Anti-endomysial antibodies (EMA), anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTG), and anti-gliadin antibodies (AGA) 4.5-fold [91] 1.5% [91]
Sjogrens Lymphocyte infiltration of CD4+ T cells, B cells, and plasma cells 4.3-fold [91] 1.5% [91] 1.5-fold greater than control [122, 124, 125]
Crohn’s Disease Th1 and Th17 pathways
CD44, IL-6, TNF-a upregulated
3.1-fold [91] 1.1% [91]
3.5–5.9% [105]
Ulcerative Colitis IL-5, IL-13, IL-15 with Th2 upregulation 2.5 fold [91] 0.9% [91]
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis Circulating immune complexes
Anti-thyroid antibodies
2.4-fold [91] 0.8% [91]
Behcet’s HLA-B51
Neuronal lymphocytosis
2.2–5% [105, 108]
Anti-phospholipid syndrome Antibodies directed against membrane anionic phospholipids 3.2-fold [94, 103, 119]