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Fig. 4 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 4

From: Novel TNF receptor-1 inhibitors identified as potential therapeutic candidates for traumatic brain injury

Fig. 4

Novel TNF-R1 inhibitors reduce neuroinflammation following TBI. a Vehicle-treated mice, but not C7-treated or SGT-treated brain-injured mice, had significantly increased IL-10 (F3,19 = 3.217, p = 0.0460) and b IL-1β (F3,19 = 3.831, p = 0.0266) compared to uninjured shams at 3 h post-injury. c There was an injury-induced increase in TNF-α (F3,19 = 1.977, p = 0.1516) and d CCL2 (F3,19 = 2.340, p = 0.1057) but these increases failed to reach statistical significance. e, f Iba-1 immunohistochemistry revealed diffuse TBI significantly reduced ramified microglia in the cortex regardless of drug treatment (F3,26 = 33.57, p < 0.0001). Representative ramified microglia indicated by arrows. g, h All brain-injured groups had a significant increase in activated microglia compared to uninjured shams (F3,26 = 33.57, p < 0.0001). Representative activated microglia indicated by arrows. Cytokine groups: sham n = 9, vehicle-treated n = 5, C7-treated n = 4, SGT-treated n = 5. Immunohistochemistry groups: sham n = 7, vehicle-treated n = 7, C7-treated n = 8, SGT-treated n = 8; scale bar is 20 μm

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