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Table 1 Phagocytosis of E. coli K1 and release of proinflammatory cytokines and NO by microglial cells treated with 13 μg/ml activin A alone and in combination with different TLR agonists

From: Activin A increases phagocytosis of Escherichia coli K1 by primary murine microglial cells activated by toll-like receptor agonists

  No stim. Act A 13 μg/ml P3C P3C + Act A LPS LPS + Act A CpG CpG + Act A
Phagocytosis (%) 100 (52/143) 56 (27/96) 337 (147/561) 276 (219/500) 493 (324/750) 275 (180/949) 493 (270/1399) 750 (183/7914)
p = 0.11 p = 0.85 p = 0.33 p = 0.94
TNF-α (pg/ml) 125 (85/195) 112 (33/157) 7280 (1884/8315) 4046 (1615/7189) 8103 (7126/8636) 4776 (1255/5505) 4325 (932/4829) 4826 (1313/7199)
  p = 0.34 p = 0.31 p < 0.0003*** p = 0.11
IL-6 (pg/ml) 38 (38/95) 38 (38/38) 38 (38/7383) 2785 (38/5913) 3910 (2832/4192) 2017 (1894/2215) 656 (435/727) 751 (656/941)
p = 0.56 p = 0.93 p = 0.10 p = 0.27
CXCL1 (pg/ml) 928 (352/1536) 690 (64/1656) 9168 (1908/19508) 6445 (2051/14133) 2802 (2751/3003) 3204 (2412/4460) 6650 (4309/8876) 4410 (4108/8820)
p = 0.77 p = 0.82 p = 0.70 p = 0.70
NO (μM) 4.6 (4.0/5.3) 4.0 (3.7/4.9) 32.4 (22.0/34.7) 40.5 (29.4/42.8) 26.1 (18.7/28.2) 31.6 (28.0/32.8) 24.4 (15.0/26.5) 25.4 (23.8/32.2)
p = 0.45 p = 0.03* p = 0.02* p = 0.11
  1. Phagocytosis of E. coli K1 by primary murine microglial cells [percentages of phagocytosis of the unstimulated control group (medians with interquartile ranges); n = 9–16 from up to four experiments] as well as concentrations (medians with interquartile ranges) of TNF-α (pg/ml), IL-6 (pg/ml), CXCL1(pg/ml), and NO (μM) in the supernatants after treatment with 13 μg/ml activin A (Act A) alone and in combination with the TLR2 agonist Pam3CSK4 (P3C), the TLR4 agonist LPS, and the TLR9 agonist CpG. Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test (*p < 0.05, ***p < 0.001)