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Table 3 Summarized comparison of changes caused by noise exposure and aging

From: Effects of chronic noise exposure on the microbiome-gut-brain axis in senescence-accelerated prone mice: implications for Alzheimer’s disease

Feature Compared to control
Noise-induced changes Aging-dependent changes
Cognition
 Learning Decreased Decreased
 Memory Decreased n.s.
Aβ amount Increased Increased
Gut microbiota
 Alpha diversity Decreased (n.s.) Decreased (n.s.)
 Beta diversity Decreased (n.s.) Decreased (n.s.)
 PCoA Distinct n.s.
 Microbiota pattern Distinct n.s.
 Firmicutes Increased n.s.
 Bacteroidetes Decreased n.s.
Intestinal tight junctions
 CLDN1 Decreased Decreased
 CLDN3 Decreased Decreased
 ZO-1 Decreased Decreased
 Occludin Decreased Decreased (n.s.)
Brain tight junctions
 CLDN1 Decreased Decreased
 CLDN3 Decreased (n.s.) Decreased (n.s.)
 ZO-1 Decreased Decreased
 Occludin Decreased (n.s.) Decreased (n.s.)
Neurotransmitters
 GABA Decreased n.s.
 5-TH Decreased n.s.
Inflammation
 ET Increased Increased
 BLC Increased Increased
 KC n.s. Increased
 LIX Increased Increased
 MCP-5 Decreased n.s.
 MIP-1a n.s. Increased
  1. n.s. not significant