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Fig. 3 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 3

From: Increased hypothalamic microglial activation after viral-induced pneumococcal lung infection is associated with excess serum amyloid A production

Fig. 3

Co-infection in the lung upregulates inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus region of the brains was dissected from mice with saline (SAL), S. pneumoniae (SP), influenza A virus (IAV) or co-infection (SPIAV) treatment. Gene expression of a TNFα, b IL-1β, c IL-6 and d CCL-2 was measured. n = 6–8; *p < 0.05, one-way ANOVA compared to SAL. e We next performed immunohistochemical staining on hypothalamic sections to identify sources of TNFα. TNFα-positive cells were stained red; Iba-1-positive cells were stained green; and double-positive cells in the merged image appeared yellow

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