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Fig. 9 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 9

From: Parkinson’s disease patients have a complex phenotypic and functional Th1 bias: cross-sectional studies of CD4+ Th1/Th2/T17 and Treg in drug-naïve and drug-treated patients

Fig. 9

The Th1 bias in PD. Circulating CD4+ T naive cells in PD patients are reduced by about 30%; however, the proportion of IFN-γ-positive cells is increased (1). Differentiation towards the Th1 lineage is increased (2), while differentiation towards Th17 is impaired (3), and both Th2 and Th17 cells in blood are reduced on average by 20–30% (4). Production of IFN-γ and TNF-α by Th1 cells is strongly increased (5) and not impaired in the presence of Treg, which are also reduced by 30% in the circulation (6). Reduced production of IL-10 by CD4+ effector T cells, which likely contributes to amplify the Th1 bias, is not represented

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