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Table 3 Correlations between neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative markers, baseline number of T2 lesions, number of new T2 lesions, and BPF change during follow-up

From: Neurofilament levels, disease activity and brain volume during follow-up in multiple sclerosis

  T2,
BL
New T2,
1 year
New T2,
2 years
New T2,
4 years
BPF change,4 years
S-NFL, BL 0.33 0.55* 0.43 0.44 − 0.24
S-NFL, 1y 0.45 0.43 0.33 0.34 − 0.56*
S-NFL, 2y mean 0.45 0.52* 0.37 0.37 − 0.37
S-NFL, 4y mean 0.41 0.43 0.32 0.35 −0.42
CSF-NFL, BL 0.29 0.60* 0.64* 0.51* − 0.20
CSF-NFL, 1y 0.59* 0.59* 0.58* 0.50* − 0.54*
CSF-NFL, 2y mean 0.43 0.62* 0.65 0.54 −0.33
CSF-NFL, 4y mean 0.41 0.55* 0.60* 0.53* − 0.35
MMP-9, BL 0.46 0.53* 0.47 0.42 − 0.16
MMP-9, mean 0.38 0.51* 0.51* 0.46 −0.26
CHI3L1, BL 0.49 0.42 0.36 0.26 −0.55*
CHI3L1, 1y 0.45 0.35 0.30 0.30 − 0.60*
CHI3L1, 2y 0.31 0.13 0.11 0.13 − 0.50*
CHI3L1, mean 0.42 0.30 0.24 0.20 − 0.54*
OPN, BL 0.51* 0.34 0.21 0.23 − 0.52*
CXCL1, BL 0.51* 0.56* 0.42 0.23 − 0.34
CXCL10, BL 0.50* 0.58* 0.48 0.41 − 0.26
CXCL10, mean 0.47 0.51* 0.42 0.34 − 0.37
CXCL13, BL 0.37 0.51* 0.52* 0.46 − 0.26
CXCL13, mean 0.40 0.49 0.52* 0.45 − 0.33
CCL22, mean 0.29 0.49 0.57* 0.54* − 0.31
T2, BL 1.00 0.48 0.39 0.27 − 0.56*
New T2, 1y 0.48 1.00 0.86* 0.66* − 0.44
New T2, 2y 0.39 0.86* 1.00 0.83* − 0.47
New T2, 4y 0.27 0.66* 0.83* 1.00 − 0.36
BPF decrease, 4y − 0.56* − 0.44 − 0.47 − 0.36 1.00
  1. Magnitude of correlation coefficients (Spearman’s rho) from bivariate non-parametric correlation analyses (Spearman) are shown
  2. 2y mean refers to the mean of levels at baseline, 1-year, and 2-year follow-up
  3. 4y mean refers to the mean of levels at baseline, 1-year, 2-year, and 4-year follow-up
  4. T2, BL: number of T2 lesions in baseline brain MRI
  5. New T2, 1y, 2y and 4y: number of new T2 lesions in brain MRI during 1, 2, and 4 years of follow-up, respectively, compared to baseline MRI
  6. BPF change, 4y: brain parenchymal fraction decrease during 4 years of follow-up
  7. S serum, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, BL baseline
  8. *Spearman’s rho ≥ 0.50 and p ≤ 0.001