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Fig. 3 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 3

From: RAS modulation prevents progressive cognitive impairment after experimental stroke: a randomized, blinded preclinical trial

Fig. 3

RAS modulation improved learning and preserved spatial, non-spatial working, and long-term reference memories despite lack of effect on long-term motor recovery post-stroke. a All animals showed a significant recovery of sensorimotor function, as measured by Bederson (C21 × candesartan × time interaction F(1,48) = 0.22, P = 0.6384) and Beam walk (C21 × candesartan × time interaction F(1,31) = 0.41, P = 0.5278), at 28 days post-stroke, irrespective of their assigned treatment group. On the other hand, b for the novel object recognition (NOR) test, saline-treated animals showed a significant reduction in discrimination index (DI) and recognition index (RI), compared to their baseline values as well as to all other groups post-stroke, while sham and C21/candesartan-treated animals retained their ability to recognize the novel object during the preference trial indicating preserved non-spatial working memory (group × time interaction F(1,30) = 14.58, P < 0.0001). c Spontaneous alternation performance (SAP) was also noticeably better for these animals with plots of the means from baseline to 24 days showing distinctive changes within each group, shams, and candesartan/C21-treated groups having either no change from baseline or an increased SAP, while the saline group showed a clear decrease in SAP from 0 to 24 days indicating worsened spatial working memory (C21 × candesartan × time interaction F(1,17) = 0.12, P = 0.7314). d On the passive avoidance test (PAT), sham animals and those treated with C21/candesartan showed significantly enhanced step-through latency, indicating better memory retention and recall of the association between properties of the chamber and the foot shock, compared to their saline-treated counterparts. (group × time interaction F(1,39) = 19.00, P < 0.0001). For all tests n = 5–10 animals/group, error bars indicate SEM. Statistical significance is denoted by *P < 0.0001 for post hoc pair-wise comparisons from baseline and #P < 0.0001 for post hoc pair-wise comparisons “between groups” post-stoke, using the Bonferroni-adjusted alpha

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