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Table 2 Production of cytokines, chemokines, and other inflammatory mediators

From: The human microglial HMC3 cell line: where do we stand? A systematic literature review

Markers Original characterization CHME3 cells HMC3 cells References
Resting Stimulated Resting Stimulated Resting Stimulated
Pro-inflammatory molecules
 IL-6 1553 ± 142 IL-1α: > 2500
LPS: 2110 ± 111
20–950/sizable amount LPS: 2–4 fold ↑
IL-1β: 50 fold ↑
IFNγ: modest ↑
IL-1β + IFNγ: additional ↑
1–40: 2–12 fold ↑
1–40 + IFNγ: no- additional ↑
1–42: no effect
α-MSH: ↑
EPA: ↑
HCV NS3: ↑
Sizable amount /(mRNA level) HIV-vector: ↑
HIV-U937: ↑
[17, 20, 21, 30, 36, 37, 40, 43, 47, 48]
 TNFα ND ND 4–8/ND 1–40: no effect
1–42: modest ↑
HCV NS3: ↑
(mRNA level)   [17, 21, 37, 40, 43, 44, 47]
 IL-1α    ND 1–40: no effect    [47]
 IL-1β    ND 1–40: no effect
HCV NS3: ↑
ND /(mRNA level)   [21, 30, 40, 47]
 Caspase-1    ND 1–40: no effect    [47]
 IL-12     LPS:↑    [52]
 IFNγ     LPS:↑ ND   [30, 52]
 iNOS    16% of cells (positive immunoreactivity)   (mRNA level)   [20, 36]
 ROS      Sizable amount HIV TAT-C protein: modest ↑ [20, 21]
Antinflammatory molecules
 IL-4      ND   [30]
 IL-10    5,4 1–42: no effect ND   [30, 43]
 TGFβ1    ~ 8   (mRNA level)   [20, 37]
 TGFβ2    ~ 100     [37]
Chemokines
 CCL2       HIV-U937: ↑ [30]
 CCL5      Sizable amount HIV-vector: ↑
HIV-U937: ↑
[30]
 IL-8     HCV NS3: ↑    [40]
 CXCL10       HIV-vector: ↑
HIV-U937: ↑
[30]
  1. Levels of cytokines and chemokines assessed in the incubation media are reported. Data are expressed as pg/ml ± SD secreted in 24-h incubation experiments. ND, not-detectable. , increased production. Several inflammatory genes (i.e., iNOS, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6, MHCII antigens, ARG1, and IL-10) were found to be expressed at the mRNA levels, in the CHME3 cells when co-cultured with differentiated neuronal SH-SY5Y wild type cells for 24, 48, 72 h. These markers were significantly upregulated in presence of the SHswe differentiated neuronal cells, with major modifications observed for IL-1β and IL-6 gene expression at 72 h [50]. In addition, the mRNA levels of both pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα) and anti-inflammatory (IFNβ, IL-4, and IL-10) cytokines increased in response to CHME3 cell infection with the Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) [53, 54]