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Table 1 Patient characteristics and clinical presentation

From: High neopterin and IP-10 levels in cerebrospinal fluid are associated with neurotoxic tryptophan metabolites in acute central nervous system infections

Parameter Encephalitis (n = 10) ASM (n = 25) ABM (n = 6) Controls (n = 42) p valuea
Gender, males (%) 4 (40) 10 (40) 4 (67) 13 (31) 0.385
Age, years 43.5 (30, 72) 35 (28, 48) 52 (41, 68) 31 (22, 41) 0.054
Hospital stay, days 19 (11, 42)b 3 (1.5, 5.5)c 19 (14, 33)b, d 2.0 (1.0, 4.0) < 0.001
Comorbidity (%)
Immunodeficiencye 2 (30)b 1 (4)c 1 (17)b 0.029
Psychiatric disorder 2 (20)b 2 (8) 0.046
Etiology known (%)f 4/10 (40) 16/25 (64) 6/6 (100) < 0.001
Headache (%) 7/10 (70)b 24/25 (96)c 3/4 (75) 39/41 (95) 0.037
Neck stiffness (%)g 2/10 (20) 12/25 (48) 3/5 (60) 12/42 (29) 0.175
Objective fever (%)h 7/10 (70) 17/25 (68) 5/6 (83) 20/42 (48) 0.168
Focal neurology (%) 5/9 (56)b 2/19 (10)c 1/6 (17) 1/24 (4) 0.003
GCS ≤ 14 (%) 10/10 (100)b 2/25 (8)c 5/6 (83)b,d 6/42 (14) < 0.001
CSF WBC (× 106/L) 25 (9.5, 92)b 179 (26, 271)b, c 212 (91, 1434)b, c 1.0 (1.0, 2.0) < 0.001
CSF protein (g/L) 0.57 (0.4, 0.9)b 0.59 (0.4, 0.8)b 2.2 (0.8, 5.9)b, c, d 0.26 (0.2, 0.3) < 0.001
CSF glucose (mmol/L) 3.6 (3.3, 4.4) 3.5 (3.0, 3.7) 3.6 (0.4, 6.3) 3.5 (3.2, 3.7) 0.341
Glucose ratio 0.6 (0.5, 0.7) 0.6 (0.5, 0.6)b 0.4 (0.1, 0.6)b 0.6 (0.6, 0.7) 0.009
Albumin ratio 8.4 (6.5,14)b 9.4 (6.1, 13)b 79 (36, 137)b, c, d 4.0 (2.6, 5.0) < 0.001
Blood WBC (× 109/L) 8.6 (7.4, 11) 8.2 (6.1, 11) 14 (8.5, 18) 10 (6.7, 12) 0.173
CRP, serum (mg/L) 6 (0.9, 86) 3.5 (1.3, 12)b 169 (96, 446)b, c, d 16 (2.1, 77) 0.001
  1. CSF WBC white blood cell count in CSF, glucose ratio CSF glucose/serum glucose, albumin ratio CSF albumin/serum albumin. Significant p-values are marked in bold. 
  2. Data shown are median (IQR) or numbers/n (%)
  3. ap values for one way analysis of variance (Kruskal-Wallis)
  4. bp < 0.05 for analysis with Mann-Whitney U test (MWU) in comparison with the control group
  5. cp < 0.05 for analysis with MWU in comparison with encephalitis
  6. dp < 0.05 for analysis with MWU in comparison with ASM
  7. eUnder treatment for or treated for cancer within the last year (including hematological malignancies), HIV infection or diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), or using immunosuppressive or immune modulating drugs
  8. fCausing agents for encephalitis were 3 viral (adenovirus, HSV1, VZV) and 1 NMDAr encephalitis. ABM; Streptococcus pneumonia (n = 2), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 2), Neisseria meningitides (n = 1), and Haemophilus influenzae (n = 1). ASM; HSV2 (n = 6), enterovirus (n = 8), Toscana virus (n = 1), and 1 patient had intrathecal antibody production of IgG against Borrelia burgdorferi
  9. gNeck stiffness was assessed by a physician before LP
  10. hFever was defined as either ≥ 38 °C upon admission or within 24 h after admission, or measured to ≥ 38 °C by the patient prior to admission